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Senator WHEELER. What is your name?
Mr. BlYMER. Ralph Blymer.
Senator WHEELER. Oh, you are the man we talked to a while ago.
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator WHEELER. All right. Now tell us what you think about these bunks?

Mr. BlYMER. They are not sanitary by any means. The men are too ignorant to keep them clean. They spit in the register and they have bedbugs on them.

Senator WHEELER. Do they have lice or is it just bed-bugs or what?

Mr. BLYMER. Both. Senator WHEELER. What about the sanitary conditions around here generally?

Mr. BLYMER. No good.
Senator WHEELER. What about liquor?
Mr. BLYMER. Well, I don't drink but there is liquor to be had.

Mr. SCHOMMER. How long have you been here? Can't you tell 'em that?

Senator WHEELER. Hold on, now. You just step aside and let us examine this man. You say there is liquor around here?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.
Senator GOODING. You know that, do you?
Mr. BLYMER. Absolutely.
Senator GOODING. Who sells liquor?

Mr. BlYMER. I couldn't tell you that, but it is here. I see men intoxicated.

Senator GOODING. Are there any houses of prostitution around here? Mr. BLYMER. I ain't never been in any. I wouldn't say there is

Senator Gooding. Is it your understanding that they are here or not?

Mr. BLYMER. It is my understanding that they are here, but I don't know about them.

Senator GOODING. Where is your toilet?
Mr. BLYMER. In the back of the buildings there about 100 feet.
Senator GOODING. How many of them are there?

Mr. BLYMER. There are sufficient. Back of each bunk house there is one.

Senator WHEELER. Do you feel perfectly free to make a statement to us here?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator WHEELER. You are not afraid to make a statement or anything of that kind?

Mr. Blymer. I see no reason why I should be.

Senator GOODING. Where did you say you came from when you came here to work?

Mr. BLYMER. Latrobe, Pa.
Senator GOODING. That is a mining town, is it?

Mr. BlYMER. It is a town, and there are mines all through that district.

Senator Gooding. Did you work on a farm at any time?

any here.

Mr. BL YMER. Yes, sir; I have worked on a farm.
Senator GOODING. How long have you been engaged in mining?
Mr. BLYMER. About two years.
Senator Gooding. You were working on a farm before that time?
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator GOODING. But you could not find employment on a farm and that is the reason you went to the coal mines?

Mr. BLYMER. No; I couldn't find any work on the farms.
Senator GOODING. How much money do you make a week?
Mr. BLYMER. To be frank with you, I believe I am in a hole.
Senator GOODING. You believe you are in a hole?
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.
Senator GOODING. Do you mean that you owe the company money?
Mr. BLYMER. I do, for tools, board, and lodging.

Senator GOODING. What do you think you can make when you get going and work reasonably weil at mining?

Mr. BLYMER. If a man had a good place here he should average about 12 tons. Senator GOODING. Twelve tons a day? Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator GOODING. The subcommittee wants to find out what the average man gets. Doubtless you have talked to a good many of the boys and can you tell us what they are earning for themselves after paying all expenses, each two weeks, or about how much?

Mr. BlYMER. Do you mean after everything is paid?
Senator GOODING. Yes; after everything is paid.

Mr. BLYMER. Well, I have not talked to but about two who have made anything.

Senator Gooding. Then do you mean that the most of them do not make anything?

Mr. BLYMER. That is it. Senator GOODING. Do not make anything for themselves? Mr. BLYMER. That is it. Senator WHEELER. What about the checks that they buy? Do they buy brass checks?

Mr. BLYMER. I don't know.

Senator WHEELER. Someone told me about miners buying some checks: what about that?

Mr. BLYMER. They sell checks to the fellows.
Senator WHEELER. What kind of checks?

Mr. BLYMER. The checks that the company gives out. Some of the fellows want money before they get paid. I believe it rates about 7 for 10.

Senator WHEELER. How is that?
Mr. BLYMER. They get about $7 in money for $10 in scrip.
Senator WHEELER. What is the scrip for?
Mr. BLYMER. Well, it is good for value at the store.
Senator WHEELER. At the company's store?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir. If a man is pressed for money he sells it to somebody. It is unnecessary to do it unless he is pressed for money.

Senator WHEELER. Then they get scrip which they can use at the store, and they take a deduction to get the money?

Mr. BLYMER. They take seven good dollars for $10 of scrip.
Superintendent Calloway. The company does not do that.


Mr. BlYMER. No; the company gives you the full bill. I believe I said that.

Senator WHEELER. But when you are hard pressed for money the scalper does that?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. Who is the scalper?
Mr. BLYMER. I couldn't tell you. You see they give you $10 for

. board and that is good for scrip, and perhaps the fellows that are boarding you, the man who wants to leave quick, they give it to him.

Senator WHEELER. Do you mean that they knock $3 off the scrip?
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. It is at what ratio to $10 of scrip?
Mr. BLYMER. They will give you $7 in money for $10 in scrip.

Senator GOODING. Is that scrip an advance that has been made to you?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator Gooding. Has someone offered you that, do you mean, or is this someone who advances you money for that purpose?

Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.
Senator GOODING. We want to get clear the purpose of it.
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator Pine. Why don't you take the scrip to the company and get them to cash it?

Mr. BLYMER. They won't take it, or I have not tried it.
Senator Pine. Are the miners paid in scrip and not in cash?
Mr. BLYMER. No, sir; they are paid money.
Senator PINE. Then how do you get this scrip?
Mr. BLYMER. They can draw that ahead of their money.

Senator GOODING. What do you mean by drawing it ahead of their money, before they have performed any service at all?

Mr. BlYMER. No; after they have gone to work and have some credit coming to them.

Senator GOODING. And then they can go and get the scrip?
Mr. BLYMER. Yes, sir.

Senator Gooding. The committee wants to interview this young miner if all of you gentlemen will now step back.


Senator Gooding. What is your name?
Mr. CROSKEY. Andrew Croskey.
Senator Gooding. You have been here how long?
Mr. CROSKEY. Five months.
Senator Gooding. Where did you come from?
Mr. CROSKEY. From mine No. 3.
Senator Gooding. You used to be operating at a union mine?
Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir. My parents and family live here.

Senator Gooding. How do they treat you here?

Mr. CROSKEY. Have you seen these big cars here? Well, when the unions used to be here they would give you 8,400 pounds and now they give us 5,300 pounds for those cars.

Senator Gooding. And now do you mean to say that they only allow you 5,300 pounds for those cars?

Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.

Senator Gooding. In other words, they dock you about 3,000 pounds of coal after you have dug it?

Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.
Senator GOODING. In addition to the cut in rate?
Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.
Senator GOODING. What do they do to you if you go out of here?

Mr. CROSKEY. They say you bave no business talking to any of the union people, and if you do you are going to get a good whipping. One day I went to the street-car station, and I got just by this place up here, and they was bothering me, and I went to the coal and iron police and said, "Can't you stop that?And he said, “You ain't got no business on the public road." I said, “My father pays taxes here in this county and I can certainly walk on that road, and this here coal and iron ain't got no business interfering with me.”

Senator GOODING. And what did they do about it?
Mr. CROSKEY. Nothing.

Senator GOODING. Have the coal and iron police beat up some men around here?

Mr. CROSKEY. Many of them; yes, sir.

Senator GOODING. You say that they have actually beat the men up around here?

Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir. There was one riot, and they beat up the people, and they shot into the barracks and everything:

Senator WAGNER. Do you mean to say that the police do that?
Mr. CROSKEY. The coal and iron police, sure.
Senator WAGNER. Do they beat up the striking miners?

Mr. CROSKEY. Yes; they said they would shoot the union dogs, and everything like that.

Senator WAGNER. And do they shoot up the strikers now?

Mr. CROSKEY. Now it is not so bad. But when we first came here they beat my father up, when we were on a strike down at another place. And they throwed a gas bomb at him.

Senator WAGNER. How are these bunks?
Senator WAGNER. Are they lousy?
Mr. CROSKY. Yes, sir.
Senator WAGNER. Do you stay there?
Mr. CROSKEY. No, sir.
Senator WAGNER. Do they sell liquor around here on the grounds?
Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.
Senator WAGNER. Where?

Mr. CROSKEY. They have liquor at No. 238 house and over here at a place called Super Six.

Senator WAGNER. Is that a company's house?

Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir. It has been raided about seven times by the traffic and State police.

Senator Wagner. Are there any whore houses here, where women are?

Mr. CROSKEY. I don't know about that. I don't go to any of them.

Senator WAGNER. Is there an order--a general order--that the men must not leave the grounds owned by the company?

Mr. CROSKEY. The coal and iron police take them to the station. Senator WHEELER. How much money did you make last pay day?

Mr. CROSKEY. Close to $50. I worked hard for it, too.
Senator WHEELER. Two weeks' work?
Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.

Senator WHEELER. That is what you got after you paid all your expenses?

Mr. CROSKEY. I don't pay board here.
Senator WHEELER. Oh, you board at home?
Mr. CROSKEY. Yes, sir.

Senator WHEELER. Suppose you had boarded here, how much would have been taken out?

Mr. CROSKEY. $12 a week.

Senator GOODING. Then, if there are no other questions we will leave here now.

(The subcommittee then left Terminal Mine No. 8 and went to Terminal Mine No. 6, but it being 2.45 p. m., on the way they stopped at Lick Run Hotel at town of Broughton, Pa. At 3.30 p. m., after

m. finishing the noon meal, the subcommittee visited the schoolhouse in the town of Broughton, about which complaint had been made that strike breakers had shot into the house while the school was in session. After Mr. H. R. McCrory, of the Daily News, New York City, had pointed out where bullets had embedded themselves in the building, the following statement was made at the schoolhouse:)

While the subcommittee, official reporter, Deputy Sergeant at Arms, and some 20 newspaper and news camera men, as well as Mr. Murray and Mr. Fagan, of the United Mine Workers of America, were viewing the schoolhouse, the woman teacher came out and ordered all of the party away because interfering with her pupils in their studies and recitations. When told it was a committee of the United States Senate, she persisted in ordering everybody away, apparently believing she was being imposed upon; and recognizing her difficulties and responsibility, Chairman Gooding then asked all to conclude the view as soon as possible and move away from the building.



Senator GOODING. Mr. McCrory, will you kindly tell us anything you may know about this shooting?

Mr. McCrory. It just so happened that I was here on the ground when the shooting was going on. I was up in the town when frantic calls came, “For God's sake, get help!” because strike breakers were standing on the railroad trestle over there, with revolvers and rifles and shooting into the schoolhouse. A number of men jumped into cars, armed with rifles, and as they came down the hill toward the schoolhouse the strike breakers ran back up into the company's property. This shooting followed the arrest by Squire J. M. O'Rourke, about two hours previous to that, of a colored strike breaker, and who at that time was making a confession, admitting the shooting the night before into some windows of barracks and stores below here with a shotgun and also with a .32 Smith & Wesson revolver. But this shooting into the schoolhouse here occurred the following day, while that colored man was being questioned up in the office of the justice of the peace. The school was in session at the time, it being about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. As soon as the local constable would drive down in a car the strike breakers would run

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