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The seven States listed above produced 85.2 per cent of the total production of 520,052,000 tons in all States during 1925.

One thousand three hundred and thirteen mines, representing 25.2 per cent of the 5,209 reporting mines in the 7 States, produced 78 per cent of the production of these States and 67.2 per cent of the production of mines in all States in 1925. Total number of bituminous mines reporting to the United States Geological Survey in 1925 for all States, 7,361.

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Coal production, 1925Continued

Number of mines

Total net tonnage

Average

per mine

48 132 176

36,011, 868 42, 036, 901 24, 783, 971

750, 247 318, 461 140, 818

356

102, 832, 740

136, 928, 019 $287, 899,000

$2.10

1, 974

6 49 94

4, 631, 268 14, 797, 346 13, 250, 572 32, 679, 186

771, 878 291. 423 140, 963

149

42,882, 113 $77, 328,000

$1. 80

480

15 32

3, 655, 967 4, 484, 652 8, 140, 619

243, 731 140, 145

47

12, 186, 557 $17, 497,000

$1. 44

161

6 19 12

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37

12, 799, 443 $23, 496, 000

$1.84

113

25 169 234

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428

Per cent of total tonnage

20.3 30.7 18.1

75.1

10.8 33.3 309 75.0

PENNSYLVANIA (BITUMINOUS)
Mines producing more than 500,000 tons...
Mines producing 200,000 to 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 100,000 to 200,000 tons.

Total.......
Total production for entire State..
Total valuation coal sold f. o. b. mines.
Realization....
Total number of mines reporting, 1925.

EASTERN KENTUCKY
Mines producing more than 500,000.-
Mines producing 200,000 to 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 100,000 to 200,000 tons.

Total......
Total production for eastern Kentucky.
Total valuation coal sold f. o. b. mines.
Realization...
Total number of mines reporting, 1925.

WESTERN KENTUCKY
Mines producing 200,000 to 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 100,000 to 200,000 tons.

Total......
Total production western Kentucky.
Total valuation coal sold f. o. b, mines.
Realization..
Total number of mines reported, 1925.

VIRGINIA
Mines producing more than 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 200,000 to 500,000 tons..
Mines producing 100,000 to 200,000 tons..

Total......
Total production for entire State
Total valuation coal sold f. o. b. mines.
Realization.
Total number of mines reporting, 1925.

30.0

36.8 68.8

31.6 40.8 11.2

83.6

WEST VIRGINIA
Mines producing more than 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 200,000 to 500,000 tons.
Mines producing 100,000 to 200,000 tons.

Total...
Total production for entire State..
Total valuation coal sold f. o. b. mines.
Realization.
Total number of mines reporting, 1925.

12.2 39.8 27.2 79.2

122, 380, 959 $209, 655, 000

$1.71

1, 173

Summary of coal production of following States, 1926

State

Number
of mines

Total tonnage
produc-

mines produce
ing
100,000

ing 100,000 tons
tons

Per cent
of total
tonnage
of State

Total production for entire State

Illinois.
Indiana..
Ohio...
Pennsylvania
Kentucky (east).
Kentucky (west).
Virginia...
West Virginia....

133
72
79
386
161
51
39
488

63, 678, 833 20, 334, 126 18,971, 162 118, 301, 185 36, 876, 760 12, 386, 681 12, 041, 744 120, 117, 313

91.8 87. 7 08.1 77. 3 77. 7 80.1 85. 2 83.7

69, 366, 923 23, 186, 006 27,872, 488 153, 041, 638 47, 460, 439 15, 464, 023 14, 133, 386 143, 509, 340

Total.

1,410

402, 707, 804

494.034, 243

The seven States listed above produced 85.7 per cent of the total production of 573,366,985 tons in all States during 1926.

One thousand four hundred and ten mines, representing 26.8 per cent of the 5,253 reporting mines in the seven States, produced 81.5 per cent of the production of these States and 70.2 per cent of the total production of mines in all States in 1926. Total number of bituminous mines reporting to United States Geological Survey in 1926 for all States, 7,177.

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Although the industry has always been cursed with overdevelopment and intermittent employment, the war period, when the industry enjoyed its greatest degree of peace and security, served only to accentuate the overdevelopment, as the coal operators simply reinvested their earnings in new lands and opened new mines rather than meet the Government tax exactions. The following table of new mines opened during this period will give the committee an idea of how tax money was used to further overdevelopment and intensify competition :

[Data from United States Geological Survey

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Under the heading “Mines abandoned,” for the year 1921, the figures are not available.

Thus it will be seen that excess mines to the number of 3,744 were added to further aggravate overdevelopment and internal competition in the six years enumerated.

Notwithstanding the unprecedented overdevelopment, as shown by the production tables for the seven States, the actual consumption of bituminous coal has been declining.

The following table from the Geological Survey Yearbook on coal production shows to what extent coal-burning efficiency has been increased in recent years and the resulting reduction in coal consumption :

FUEL ECONOMY

Indicators of the effect of fuel economy on the consumption of coal per unit of

performance since the war

(Coal in 1925, by F. G. Tryon and L. Mann)

Pounds

Per cent reduction

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United States:
Stearn railroads-
Pounds per 1,000 gross ton-miles freight service

Average, 1919-20..

Average, 1925.
Pounds per passenger-train car-mile-

Average, 1919–20.

Average, 1925. Steam electric

power plants-
Pounds per kilowatt-hour, 1919.

Pounds per kilowatt-hour, 1925.
Iron and steel, pounds coking coal per ton of pig-

1918.

1924.. Coke manufacture

Savings of heat values through recovery of gas tar, light oils, and breeze by

extension of by-product in place of beehive coking, 1913 to 1923, expressed as
per cent of coal used for coke in 1923..

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Senator Fess. How do you account for the reduced use of coal on the steam lines?

Mr. LEWIS. Because of the improved efficiency in combustion methods, and the application of modern practices.

Senator Fess. Is that by reason of the use of any substitute, like oil?

Mr. Lewis. Not in these tables. That does not comprehend anything of that kind. That merely means the result of added efficiency from the use of the same amount of coal for the development of the same horsepower or kilowatt-hours, as the case may be.

The United Mine Workers of America had served as the only stabilizing force that the bituminous-coal industry has ever known. When union wages and working conditions prevailed in the major portion of the industry, the equalized wage rates paid served to stabilize production costs and minimize internal cutthroat competition.

The progressive leaders of the industry, as well as Government agencies, recognizing the value of the United Mine Workers and the trade-union agreement as the only stabilizing force within the industry, sought to promote a long-time wage agreement which would insure continuity of production and, under this arrangement, weed out incompetent employers and eliminate needless surplus mines.

Following the strike of 1922, which was the result of an illadvised attempt of bituminous-coal management to destroy the mine workers' union, certain Government agencies set to work to

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