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probably contempt of court for advocating violation of injunctions. Minerich was arrested previously in Washington County, Pa., for making an incendiary speech and saying, "To hell with injunctions," and I think that in substance is the story of this organization.

Senator PINE. You say they have distributed more or less relief. Where do they get their funds for that purpose?

Mr. HENRICI. They have distributed quite an amount of relief and the funds were secured principally from the Emergency Strikers' Relief Committee in New York, of which the principal members are writers, like Norman Thomas, Susanna Paxton, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Eddy, Amos Pinchot, Oswald Garrison Villard, and Samuel Untermyer. Minerich showed me a check that he got long ago for $1,627. Oswald Garrison Villard, editor of The Nation, is on the committee and he is making appeals for this committee in The Nation, I see in the current number of that magazine. There was an appeal for help to be used for strikers' relief, to be given in New York and there they turn the money over to Pennsylvania and Ohio. And they also get money from a great many foreign societies. They get money from a number of parlor socialist organizations.

Senator GOODING. They confine their activities to camps where there is & conflict on, where there is a strike between the miners and the operators, is that your understanding of their work?

Mr. HENRICI. So far as I know. They say they have 100 local unions to-day that they are distributing relief to, and those are largely local unions in which they are trying to take the administration from the United Mine Workers of America.

I was at a meeting held under the auspices of this committee at Bel Air, Ohio, last Sunday. They were denied the use of the Miners' Temple, and so they hired the Bohemian Hall. There were some 500 of them there, and when they were in the hall the chief of police of Bel Air and four policemen came in and would not permit any meeting to be held. They slipped away and took possession of the Miners' Temple notwithstanding they were refused permission to use it, and there was no further interference.

They publish a paper here called “The Coal Digger” and get out quite a lot of literature.

Senator WAGNER. Did you listen to the speech at that meeting?

Mr. HENRICI. Yes, sir. There was no direct attack made on the Government but there were many expressions of bitterness in regard to injunctions and as to the attitude of the police and the constituted authorities.

After concluding its investigation up to this point, the committee drove to the Kinlock mine of the Valley Coal Co., and called on the superintendent, J. A. Schweinsburg.

Mr. Schweinsburg was asked to tell the committee about the explosion that had taken place in the mine two or three days before your committee visited this property. He said the explosion occurred on the night shift about 9 o'clock, and there were 20 men working in the mine at the time, 10 of whom were killed. He advised the committee that the mine worked about 450 men on the day shift and that if the explosion had occurred during the day no doubt more than 100 miners would have been killed.

The committee found that all the mines were putting on new men, but they were only questioned as to whether or not they were miners, and their word was accepted as to the time they worked in other mines, but no investigation was made as to the truth of their statement.

From information gathered later concerning this explosion the committee has every reason to believe that it was brought about by carelessness.

Mr. Schweinsburg, the committee learned, had worked on the Jacksonville agreement until it expired and that out of 900 men employed during the life of this agreement, only 100 of them were colored, he said. At the present time the mine is working 450 to 475 men, 50 per cent of whom are colored.

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Your committee then called for the weekly pay roll and several pages were copied into the record.

Åt 6 o'clock p. m, the investigation was discontinued and the committee motored back to their headquarters at the William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh.

On Saturday morning, February 25, 1928, your committee left the William Penn Hotel at 10 o'clock accompanied by Mr. J. D. A. Morrow, president of the Pittsburgh Coal Co., for such a tour of the company's property as he might desire.

The first stop made was at Pricedale, Pa., where we met the superintendent, Mr. Robert Baughman, and learned from him that about 400 men were employed at the present time and that 50 per cent of them were old miners who had belonged to the union before the abrogation of the Jacksonville agreement.

At this point the committee learned that the Pittsburgh Coal Co. was the first to break the Jacksonville agreement. Mr. Morrow maintained that the Jacksonville agreement was not binding and that they had a right to abrogate it at any time. He admitted that they had worked under it for something more than a year and then closed the mines down for six months, and when they opened again the scale of wages was much below those paid under the Jacksonville agreement. As far as the committee was able to learn practically all the rest of the coal companies in the Pittsburgh district carried the Jacksonville agreement out in good faith and considered it a binding contract upon them as well as upon the miners.

Mr. Morrow was the only operator we interviewed who seemed to look upon the Jacksonville agreement as a scrap of paper to be torn up and destroyed at the pleasure of the company.

The committee then called for the pay roll of the Pricedale mine. From this inspection your committee found generally that after deductions had been made for indebtedness to the company the amount left the miners, as a rule, was very small. The committee did not have time to make a thorough investigation as to the average earnings of the miners. This is a matter, however, that we felt should be developed at the general hearings in Washington.

At this mine, as well as all the others, the committee found that but few of the miners worked full time. Some said that this was due to the fact that cars are not available, and other excuses too numerous to mention were given. After concluding its inspection of the pay roll the committee was asked to interview some of the old miners that lived at Pricedale for a number of years, who were union miners.

Thereupon, at 12.30 p. m., when the committee left the company's office, we crossed the road and conferred with several men who were local strikers. They advised the committee that at the present time about 50 per cent of the miners employed are colored and that before the breaking of the Jacksonville agreement not more than 10 per cent of the miners employed were colored.

The committee then visited the house of Mrs. Barr, known as house 49 of the Pittsburgh Coal Co. Mrs. Barr stated that she had eight children, the oldest 16 years and the youngest a 9-months-old infant in arms.

She said her husband made $4.08 a day and that by the time they paid their food bills there was very little or nothing left for clothing; the family was generally in rags and the 8-year-old child was without shoes and forced to stay away from school.

At this point Mr. Baughman, superintendent of the mines, said he had made a further inspection of the records and found that only 22 per cent of the miners employed were colored.

Your committee then took the statement of the father of a 10-yearold girl who had been attacked by a colored strike breaker. The girl was very small for her age and your committee found that this colored fellow had been given a sentence by the courts for this heinous crime of from two and one-half to five years.

Your committee then visited the home of Mrs. Anna Jupin and took the statement of Miss Anna Jupin, which is as follows:

Senator GOODING. Give your full name to the official reporter of the committee
Miss JUPIN. My name is Anna Jupin.
Senator GOODING. How old are you?
Miss JUPIN. I am 16 years old now; I was 16 in October.

Senator GOODING. How old were you when you met those fellows of whom you complain?

Miss JUPIN. I was 15.

Senator GOODING. Will you tell us the story of what occurred and all about it? You may just go ahead.

Miss JUPIN. Well

Senator Gooding. Just go ahead and tell how you came to meet him and what he promised you and all that.

Miss JUPIN. At the time I met him I was down by the company's store with another girl friend of mine, Matilda Hyatt. She introduced me to this fellow and she went and got in the car with him but I didn't want to go. They got hold of my hand and dragged me in.

Senator WHEELER. Who did?
Miss JUPIN. John Gannon.
Senator WHEELER. Was he a coal and iron police?

Miss JUPIN. He was. They took me down to her aunt's, Julia Hyatt's place, and when I got there I found other girls there, Anna Catish and Alfreda Turner.

Senator WHEELER. Then what happened?

Miss JUPIN. We stayed down there for a few days, three days, I think, and then he took us to some place near Smithton. Senator WHEELER. Did he make you any promises? Miss JUPIN. Yes, he did.

Senator WHEELER. Were any of the coal and iron police using the other two girls?

Miss JUPIN. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. They were sleeping with those other two girls?

Miss JUPIN. I don't know whether they slept with them or not but they were there when I was there.

Senator WHEELER. Did they stay overnight?
Miss JUPIN. No, sir; he would stay late at night.

Senator GOODING. Go ahead and tell us about it. How long did you stay there?

Miss JUPIN. From the 4th of July until the 22d of July. After we stayed there three days he took us to Smithton. Just before they took me over there my, mother came after me, the day before, and they hid me in the clothes press and told my mother that Anna was not there. Afterwards when we went up to Smithton there was any number of girls in that place and coal and iron police.

Senator WHEELER. With the coal and iron police?
Miss JUPIN. Yes, sir.
Senator WHEELER. How many girls were there?
Miss JUPIN. I don't know how many girls, but a number of them.
Senator WHEELER. Were they young girls like you?
Miss JUPIN. Yes, sir; they were.
Senator WHEELER. How old were they, do you know?

Miss Jupin. Well, I knew about two that was down in Pricedale and they were 15 and 14.

Senator WHEELER. What promise did the police make to you about marriage? Miss JUPIN. That he would marry me, is all.

Senator WHEELER. He promised that if you would go with him he would marry you? Miss JUPIN. Yes; he did.

Your committee learned that John Cannon had been permitted to plead guilty of fornication and had been fined the princely sum of $25.

Your committee left Pricedale fully impressed with the fact that the morals there were in a very demoralized condition—that the men and women were running wild and that no effort was being made by the authorities to curb these immoral conditions. In fact, the committee found generally that no effort was made to invoke law and order or to maintain police protection except through the iron and coal police and they were found to be the outstanding ones who showed little regard for law and order or for the improvement of morals. The committee found generally that the operators themselves paid little if any attention to the morals of the community and made no effort to improve them.

Your committee listened to the stories of other witnesses who told of being arrested and beaten up by the coal and iron police.

We then proceeded to Banning mine No. 1, Van Meter post office, Pa., and went to the company's office, where we interviewed Oscar Steckman, superintendent. He said there were 450 men employed and that the daily production of coal was something like 18 tons. The percentage of colored miners at the present time was 38 per cent.

The committee called for the pay roll and some time was given to their inspection. They were found to be very similar to the previously inspected pay rolls.

The committee then was invited to take a trip into the mine. We were carried in through the tunnel about 3 miles where we were given the opportunity of seeing one of the coal machines operate.

At this point the committee returned to Pittsburgh, thus ending the third day of inspection of the conditions in this territory.

Your committee met at 10 o'clock Sunday morning, February 26, 1928, at its headquarters at the William Penn Hotel for conference with Mr. Baker, of the Pittsburgh Terminal Coal Co. As the committee had visited a number of this company's mines, it thought it proper to have a statement from Mr. H. F. Baker, president of the company. Mr. Baker said he was a lawyer by profession and had only been connected with the Pittsburgh Coal Co. officially as its president for a few years, and that this was his first experience trying to operate coal mines during a strike.

Mr. Baker advised the committee that he had exercised great care in the selection of the men employed as coal and iron police. Mr. Baker said the men employed as coal and iron police would not be expected to have the discretion of executives or general officers and that perhaps at times they had done things he would not advise them to do or want them to do, nor approve of. He said, however, this was only in isolated cases.

Mr. Baker stated that his company had kept the Jacksonville agreement during the life of that agreement. Mr. Baker stated to the committee that he had been very prominent in social work in Pittsburgh. He was an officer in many institutions of that nature and had always worked for the welfare of all workers of that type. Mr. Baker said he had visited his coal properties at least once a week and was familiar with the living conditions of the men, and was surprised to learn the committee was shocked by conditions they found on some of the property where men were housed in buildings that were filthy, poorly ventilated, and not fit for human beings to occupy. He said he had no apology to make for conditions found at his mines, he thought they were very good, and gave the committee to understand there would be no effort to improve the living conditions for the men employed by the Pittsburgh Terminal Coal Co.

It was at the Pittsburgh Terminal mines that the committee had found 8 or 10 men crowded into a room with double bunks, one bunk on top of the other. It was at one of Mr. Baker's mines that the committee found the stoves had been taken from the miners in the dead of winter and had only been replaced after a committee of miners had been sent to Pittsburgh to protest to the general office.

Mr. Baker was asked to bring with him the exact dimensions of the barracks in which 8 or 10 men were sleeping at the present time when he came to Washington to appear before the whole committee. Mr. Baker stated that if the union miners had gotten out of the houses of the company these barracks would not have been built. When asked if that was an excuse, he replied, “Oh, no; I do not make that as an excuse in any way." Mr. Baker's statement that he did not make any apology for the dirty, filthy, vermin-infected conditions the committee found in the bunk houses occupied by the miners shocked every member of the committee.

Much time was given to Mr. Baker, which I am sure the committee will find interesting. Mr. Baker's attention was called to the activity of the organization known as the “Ohio and Pennsylvania Relief Society' which was advocating mass picketing and breaking of injunctions and nationalizing the coal industry. He said, however, he did not consider them seriously dangerous and expressed himself as having very little respect for organized labor as it existed at the present time.

The committee's attention was then called to a newspaper called the Daily Worker. Mr. Henrici said the paper was conducted by the Communist Party. Senator Gooding then offered a letter for the record that he had received from the Pennsylvania and Ohio Relief Committee. This letter had the following headlines:



Save the Union-Mass Picketing-A National Strike—Smash InjunctionsA National Agreement-A National Labor Party-Organize the Unorganized ; Miners-Lewis Must Go-No WageCuts-No Arbitration-No Backward Step-Organize the Women-Organize the Youth-Six-Hour Day-Five-Day Week.

Mr. Henrici advised the committee that this organization was connected with and a part of the I. W. W. organization of the country. The committee was told of the activities of this organization; how they called together boys and girls in large numbers to congregate in halls for the purpose of organizing under the title of “The Young Patriotic Workers of America." The committee found that the headquarters of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Relief Society was identical with the communist's headquarters at 43 East One hundred and twenty-fifth Street, New York City.

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