Mammalian Dispersal Patterns: The Effects of Social Structure on Population Genetics
M. Zuleyman Tang Halpin, B. Diane Chepko-Sade, Zuleyma Tang Halpin
University of Chicago Press, 1987 - Nature - 342 pages
Mammalian Dispersal Patterns examines the ways that social structure affects population genetics and, in turn, rates of evolution, in mammalian groups. It brings together fieldwork in animal behavior and wildlife biology with theoretical work in demography and population genetics. The focus here is dispersal—whether, how, and when individuals leave the areas where they are born.
Theoretical work in population genetics indicates that such social factors as skewed sex ratios, restrictive mating patterns, and delayed age of first reproduction will lower the reproductive variability of a population by reducing the number of genotypes passed from one generation to the next. Field studies have shown that many mammalian species do exhibit many such social characteristics. Among horses, elephant seals, and a number of primates, the majority of females are inseminated by only a fraction of the males. In pacts of wolves and mongooses, usually only the highest-ranking male and female breed in a given season. Although socially restricted mating tends to lower genetic variability in isolated populations, it actually tends to increase genetic variability in subdivided populations with low rates of migration between subunits. Among some species there is little dispersal and thus little gene flow between subpopulations; other species travel far afield before mating.
The contributors to this volume examine actual data from populations of mammals, the way patterns of dispersal correlate with the genetic structure of individuals and populations, and mathematical models of population structure. This interdisciplinary approach has an important bearing on work in conservation of both wildlife and zoo populations, for it shows that the home range and the population size needed to maintain genetic variability can differ greatly from one species to the next. The volume also offers a fruitful model for future research.
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Factors Influencing Dispersal in the Black Bear
Dispersal and Intergroup Transfer in the Dwarf Mongoose
Dispersal Patterns in Kangaroo Rats Dipodomys spectabilis
Dispersal versus Philopatry
Patterns of Dispersal and Genetic Structure in Populations
Phenotypic and Genotypic Mechanisms for Dispersal
Dispersal Population Size and Genetic Structure of Microtus
The Correlation between Population Structure and Genetic
The Genetic Demography of the Gainj of Papua
Definition and Measurement of Migration
A Model Predicting Dispersal Distance Distributions
Inferences on Natural Population Structure from Genetic
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adult males aggression allele alpha animals average Biology breeding season calculated chap Chepko-Sade colony coterie deer deme demographic dispersal distances dispersal patterns distribution dwarf mongoose effective population effective population size emigration estimate evolution evolutionary fission gene flow genetic drift genetic structure habitat home range Hoogland immigration rates inbreeding avoidance inbreeding depression individuals Journal of Mammalogy juveniles kin selection Krebs Lidicker male dispersal males and females mammalian mammals mating system matrix microtine migration rates mounds movements natal natal pack Nelson and Mech observed occur offspring outbreeding outbreeding depression philopatry pikas polygynous population density population genetics population structure prairie dog town random reproductive success resident result Sade sample selection sex ratio Shields Smith and Ivins social behavior social groups Sociobiology species Speke's gazelle study area subpopulations ulation variance vole Waser white-tailed deer Wildlife wolf wolves Wright yearling young