Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations

Front Cover
`The publication of this Second Edition of Culture′s Consequences marks an important moment in the field of cross-cultural studies... for business researchers interested in doing cross-cultural work. A teaching aid for introducing the notion of cultural differences to business students, [it] provides an easy-to-understand framework with numerous examples of their practical applicability. Hofstede′s framework for understanding national differences has been one of the most influential and widely used frameworks in cross-cultural business studies, in the past ten years′ - Australian Journal of Management

The long-anticipated Second Edition of a true classic is thoroughly updated with an expanded coverage and scope. This excellent work explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist between members of more than 50 modern nations and will be the new benchmark for scholars and professionals for years to come. It argues that people carry `mental programmes′ which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in school and organizations, and that these mental programmes contain a component of national culture. They are most clearly expressed in the different values that predominate among people from different countries.

 

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Contents

Values and Culture
1
Studying Culture
15
Dimensions of Culture
24
Culture Change
34
Notes
36
Data Collection Treatment and Validation
41
Data Treatment
49
Validation
65
Origins and Implications of Country Masculinity Differences
297
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
335
Notes
341
Long Versus ShortTerm Orientation
351
Measuring and Validating National Differences in LongTerm Orientation
355
Implications of Country LongTerm Orientation Differences
359
Notes
370
Cultures in Organizations
373

Notes
73
Power Distance
79
Measuring National Differences in Power Distance in IBM
84
Validating PDI Against Data From Other Sources
91
Origins and Implications of Country Power Distance Differences
97
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
123
Notes
137
Uncertainty Avoidance
145
Measuring National Differences in Uncertainty Avoidance in IBM
148
Validating UAI Against Data From Other Sources
154
Origins and Implications of Country Uncertainty Avoidance Differences
159
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
183
Notes
199
Individualism and Collectivism
209
Measuring National Differences in Individualism in IBM
214
Validating IDV Against Data From Other Sources
219
Origins and Implications of Country Individualism Differences
225
Statistical Analysis of Data Used in This Chapter
255
Notes
273
Masculinity and Femininity
279
Measuring National Differences in Masculinity in IBM
284
Validating MAS Against Data From Other Sources
294
Organizational Cultures
391
Notes
415
Intercultural Encounters
423
Political Issues Minorities Migrants and Refugees
429
Multinational Business
440
Schools Tourism and a Look Ahead
451
Notes
454
Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research
461
Closing Remarks
466
Questions From the IBM Attitude Survey Questionnaire Referred to in This Book
467
Country Scores on A B and C Questions except A5A32 and C1C8
475
Standardized Country and Occupation Scores for Work Goal questions A518 and C1C8
483
Replicating the IBMStyle CrossNational Survey
491
Summary of Country Index Scores including additions
499
Summary of Significant Correlations of Country Index Scores With Data From Other Sources
503
Two Case Studies From the IRIC Organizational Cultures Research Project
521
The Authors Values
523
References
525
Name Index
569
Subject Index
585
About the Author
Copyright

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About the author (2001)

Geert Hofstede received a master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Technical University at Delft and a doctorate in Social Psychology from the University of Groningen, both in his native Netherlands. His professional career includes experience as a worker, foreman, plant manager, chief psychologist on the international staff of a multinational corporation, academic researcher, director of human resources of another multinational, and university professor. He has been affiliated with IMD (Lausanne, Switzerland), INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France), the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (Brussels, Belguim), IIASA (Laxenburg Castle, Austria), and the University of Hong Kong. He is Professor Emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management of Maastricht University, the Netherlands. He is currently a Senior Fellow of the Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation (of which he was a founder) and of the Center for Economic Research, both at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He has lectured at universities and consulted for institutions and companies around the world. Dr. Hofstede’s books have appeared in seventeen languages, and his articles have been published in social science journals around the world. He is among the top 100 most cited authors in the Social Science Citation Index.

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