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It shows us the extent, the malignity, and the guiltiness of the evil. To none, but to such as are favored with the disclosures of scripture, can it occur that those perverse inclinations—that wrong bias of the mind, of which they have some painful consciousness, is enmity against the infinite God. And none but those to whom the bible conveys a special illumination, enlightening and purifying the mind, can have any just perception of the tremendous guilt and peril of a state thus at war with heaven. For it is a part of the character of all who are in this state, to be blind to its most revolting and alarming circumstances. It is on this account, that so many entertain views of human depravity, most manifestly at variance with the uniform representations of scripture. Now to open eyes thus blind, and correct apprehensions thus mistaken, by illustrating and enforcing the great doctrines of revelation on this point, is one of the appropriate agencies of the christian ministry, to which I propose to give my feeble endeavors in the ensuing discourse.

It can hardly be necessary to introduce here any extended remarks to show, that the carnal mind denotes the natural moral state of every human mind. Throughout the New Testament the terms flesh and spirit are almost invariably used as opposed to each other. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. The spirit, as used in such connexions, plainly signifies, the new spiritual frame created in the believer's mind, by the energy of the Holy Spirit ; and consequently the flesh means the state of mind in which men are by nature. They that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh, and they that are after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. The flesh lusteth against the Spirit and the Spirit against the flesh, and these are contrary the one to the other. How contrary they are the one to the other, may be seen in the apostle's minute specification of their separate fruits. In short, the one is the old man which is corrupt, af

ter the deceitful lusts. The other is the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. The truth, then, which the inspired apostle intended to declare in the text, is, that the natural moral state of the human mind is enmity against God.

It is requisite to observe, in this connexion, that the enmity of the carnally-minded against God, is not to be understood as indicating an utter absence of all qualities of an estimable and desirable nature. They whose state of mind is enmity against God, may possess many natural endowments of mind and qualities of heart, which are to be sought and commended. Intellectual elevation, refinement of taste, warm and generous sensibilities to the wants and woes of others, and instinctive aversion to every species of low-bred and gross sensuality, may characterize them in a high degree. Nor is it to be inferred that, because they have a mind which is enmity against God, they are of course equally impelled to all manner of spiritual wickedness. There may be many departments of transgression, which, from their pursuits, habits, and associations, they are not brought to explore. Alike without foundation is the inference, that all persons in their unrenewed state of mind, having the same carnal mind, and being enemies against God in their mind by wicked works, have reached the same measure of corruption and guilt. It is enough to ruin them forever except they repent, that their mind is carnal, enmity against God, and strongly inclining them to relish and pursue what he has forbidden, and to hate and neglect what he has required.

It seems proper further to observe, that the enmity against God, which characterizes the unregenerate, by no means necessarily supposes their personal consciousness of it. The blindness, the infatuation, the delirium which sin occasions, often prevents a discovery of the predominant tendencies of the heart. Is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing? While the carnal mind is the only impulse they obey, there is often

no perception of the nature of the dominion under which they act, of the value and importance of the interests with which they are prompted to conflict, or of the disastrous end to which they are rapidly hastening. In following the perverse inclinations of the heart, their mind is so withdrawn from the most important views of their condition, relations, and destination, that to many it rarely occurs, how, in the secret debates and purposes of their own bosoms, they are contending with the Almighty, and how, in the open pursuits of lile, they are assailing the very foundations of Jehovah's throne. But the great reason why not a few do not perceive their state of mind to be enmity against God, is, that they have false views of the divine character. They do not conceive of it as it is revealed in scripture. Their God is the God of nature, of poetry, of fiction. They think of him as a being of boundless wisdom, might, and benevolence; and as such feel complacency in his character, admire his works, and praise him for the gifts of his bounteous hand. His character, in their apprehensions, is divested of those features of sinhating holiness and sin-punishing justice, with which it stands clothed in the bible. And they are conscious of no aversion to him ; because they view him as allowing them to pursue, with scarcely any abridgment of their gratifications, the ways of their own hearts; as very merciful and indulgent to sinners, and as ready to give eternal life to all, but especially to themselves, however destitute of repentance, faith, or holiness. But to every such person Jehovah speaks in language of most affecting emphasis and appropriateness. These things thou hast done, and I kept silence. Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyselfbut I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes.

From this explanation of what the scriptures teach us to understand by the carnal mind, and of the sense in which it is enmity against God, I proceed to exhibit more fully the nature of that enmity, by adverting to several particulars in which its existence is manifest.

I. T'he enmity of the carnal mind exists against God, as he is presented in his law. If it were possible to separate, even in thought, the law of God, bearing, as it does, so distinctly, impressions of the most interesting and attractive features of his character, from Jehovah himself, it might be urged, that this enmity is not against the person of the Most High, but against the authoritative methods he employs to restrain man from doing what he delights to do, and to enforce his performance of acts to which he has a strong reluctance. But in reality such a distinction does not exist, and cannot be made. The Spirit of the Godhead breathes through this law. His character, bis authority, his very throne is linked indissolubly with it. From these it emanated, and these are engaged to execute it. So that aversion to this, is enmity against him. This is rendered evident by what follows immediately in connexion with the text, as explanatory of the enmity of the carnal mind. It is not subject to the law of God. Indeed, it is the impress of the divine holiness which it bears—it is the claim of God to the whole heart which it makes—it is the appalling sanctions of the divine authority with which it comes clothed—it is the threatening of Almighty wrath against obstinate transgressors, which it uttersit is these peculiarities which form the principal ground of the natural heart's repugnance to the law of God. And the reason why this dislike to the divine law, or rather to the Most High, as there exhibited, does not assume in

every unregenerate person a form more prominent and practical, is, that these peculiarities are not clearly perceived. Let the carnally minded only see, as they may, and often do see, that in the law of God, his hand is directly restraining, correcting, and punishing them, when yielding to the native feelings of their heart, and they will need no proof, and those who are conversant with them will need no proof, that the carnal mind is enmity against God. They will feel and evince a determined resistance of heart to a law, which they affect or persuade themselves to believe, is so rigid in its requirements and so severe in its penalties. They will feel that God is a hard master in thus imposing restraints on passions and appetites which seek gratification in sin, aud in following such gratification with the infliction of sore and abiding evil. Nor will the feeling exist inactive in the breast. Cordial hatred of Him who thus seeks by the sway of motives to abridge their liberty of self-destruction, drives them often to dare the vengeance of his violated law. Why else are multitudes ruining their reputation, their happiness, and their souls, by obstinately persisting in the ways of transgression ? O, it is enmity against God which leads so many to profane his name, to desecrate his sacred day, and to treat with blasphemous contempt his holy word. It is enmity against God, which rears our theatres and other places of licentious dissipation. It is enmity against God, which fills the bosom of man with enmity against man, and the world with violence, and war, and woe. But when, through grace, the carnal mind is made spiritual, there exists no more enmity against the Holy One as he is exhibited in his law. On the contrary, he comes to be contemplated there with great complacency and delight. To the regenerate mind the thought, that the divine Being should be any less holy, just, and spiritual in his requisitions, than his law exhibits him, would be ineffably distressing. I delight in the law of God after the inward manI hate vain thoughts, but thy law do I love-How love I thy law, it is my meditation all the day. Such is the language of a mind that has ceased to be carnal.

II. The enmity of the carnal mind exists against God, as he is presented in the economy of his government. There is scarcely any aspect, in which unrenewed men contemplate the Supreme Being with deeper feelings of dislike, than as a sovereign. They feel

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