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death-bed were, that he sorely lamented the unnecessary
troubles he had caused in the church by the schism he • had been the great fomenter of; and wished he was to
begin his life again, that he might testify to the world the « dislike he had of his former ways; and in this opinion
he died.' The next year Whitgift constantly attended the queen in her last illness, and composed a prayer upon that occasion; he was principal mourner at her funeral, received the offering, and had the banners presented to him. K. James being proclaimed March 24, 1602, the archbishop sent Dr Nevil, dean of Canterbury, into Scotland to his majesty, in the name of the bishops and clergy of England, to tender their allegiance, and to understand his majesty's pleasure in regard to the government of the church, and though the dean brought a gracious message to him from the king, assuring him that he would maintain the settlement as his predecessor had left it, yet the archbishop passed this summer of the year 1603 in some pain about its preservation.
The Puritans had, immediately upon the death of queen Elizabeth conceived fresh hopes of some countenance, if not establishment of their new discipline, and began to talk loudly of challenging forthwith all exemption from the censure of, and subjection to, the ecclesiastical authority. A book had been printed the year before by that party, entitled, The Plea of the Innocents, and this year in April there came out The humble Petition of the thousand Ministers for redressing Offences in the Church, at the end of which they required a conference; and in October a proclamation was issued touching a meeting for the hearing and determining things pretended to be amiss in the church. The archbishop's diligence in this affair is seen in a letter which he wrote to the earl of Shrewsbury soon after, by which it appears also, that he was then (viz. in December) so much indisposed with the jaundice la disorder incident to his constitution) as not to be able to wait upon the king and court abroad that summer. Before the conference he sent some queries to his okl friend Dr Hutton, then archbishop of York, of matters that should be concerted at this conference, for his judgment. The conference was held at Hampton-court, and lasted three days, June 14, 16, and 18. An account of it was afterwards written by Dr Barlow, then dean of Chester, at the particular request of the archbishop: One principal design of which was thereby to wipe off an
aspersion that was thrown upon him, and some other bishops, at the close of it.
The time of the parliament's meeting now drawing near, the archbishop, that he might be the better prepared, appointed a meeting at the bishop of London's house at Fulham, to confer with some of the bishops and judges of his court concerning the affairs of the church, which were then to be treated on. As he was thus going in his barge on a very cold day, and having his bargecloth tied up (as his custom was) to the top of the bales, the wind blew so sharp, that the young gentlemen in waiting desired to have the cloth down, which he would by no means permit, because the water was rough, and he would therefore see his way. At night he complained of having taken a great cold in his head. However, the next Sunday being the first Sunday in Lent, he went to Whitehall, where the king held a long discourse with him and the bishop of London about the affairs of the church. Going thence, after fasting till near one o'clock, to the council chamber to dinner, he was taken with a fit, which ended in the dead palsy on the right side, and his speech taken away, whence he was carried to the lord treasurer’s chamber, and thence (after a while) conveyed home to Lambeth. On Tuesday he was visited by the king, who told him, he would pray to God for his life, and
that if he could obtain it, he should think it ore of the ' greatest temporal blessings that could be given him in
this kingdom. The archbishop would have said something to the king, but his speech failed him, so that he uttered only imperfect words. But so much of his speech was heard, repeating it once or twice earnestly (with his eyes and hands lifted up) pro ecclesia Dei: i. e. “ for " the church of God.” And as he would have spoken his mind to the king being present, so he made two or three attempts to write his mind to him, but could not, the pen falling out of his hand by reason of the prevailing of his disease, which put an end to his life the day following, being the twenty-ninth day of February, 1603-4.
Camden, notwithstanding he assigns the palsy for the immediate apparent cause of his death, yet expressly declares, that he died with grief, as he found the king • began to contend about the liturgy, and judged some • things therein fit to be altered. Dum de liturgia recepta. • Rex contendere coepit, & nonnulla in ea mutanda censuit, Johannes Whitgiftus Archiepisc, ex mærore obiit.' This
seems also to be the general opinion, by the account which another author gives us, that upon his death-bed he should use these words: Et nunc, Domine, exaltata est anima mea, quod in eo tempore succubui quando mallem episcopatus mei Deo reddere rationem, quam inter homines exercere : 6 And now, O Lord, my soul is rejoiced that • I die in a time wherein I had rather give up to God an * account of my bishopric, than any longer to exercise it among men.'
He was interred the twenty-seventh of March in the parish-church of Croydon, where a monument is erected with an inscription to his memory. His funeral was graced with the presence of the earl of Worcester, and the Lord Zouch, who attended the hearse carrying his banners ; and Dr Babington, bishop of Worcester, preached his funeral sermon with great applause on 2 Chron. xxiv. 15, 16.
In his person he was of a middle stature, a grave countenance, and brown complexion, black hair and eyes. He wore his beard neither long nor thick. He was small boned and of good agility, being straight and well-shaped in all his limbs to the light habit of his body, which begun somewhat to spread and fill out towards his latter years. His learning seems to have been confined to the Latin language, as Hugh Broughton often objected to him ; neither doth he appea to have been much skilled in deep points of theology. He was a popular and a diligent preacher, and took delight in exercising his talent that way; yet his mind led him chiefly to ecclesiastical government, in the administration of which he was both indefatigable and intrepid.
After he left Trinity-college, while he was bishop of Worcester and archbishop of Canterbury, he took for many years into his house a number of young gentlemen, several of quality, to instruct them, as their tutor, reading to them thrice a day in mathematics and other arts, as well as in the languages, giving them good allowance and preferments as occasion offered ; besides these, he kept several poor scholars in his house till he could provide for them, and prefer them (as he did several to good estates) he also maintained several others at the university. His charitable hospitality extended to foreigners. He relieved and entertained in his house for many years together several distressed ministers (recommended by Beza and others) out of Germany and France, who were driven from their own homes, some by banishment, others by reason of wars and extremity, shewing no less bounty to them at
their departure. Sir George Paul assures us, that he remitted large sums out of his own purse to Beza.
In the execution of his charge in the ecclesiastical commission, every Thursday in term being a solemn court-day, the archbishop had a sermon in his chapel, and entertained the commissary and the attendants at great expence. That day was seen a senate of the greatest counsellors of state, with the assistance of the chief prelates, justices, judges, and sufficient lawyers of both professions that those times afforded. This kept up the reputation of the court, through the neglect of which its credit sunk afterwards, till at length, by several great abuses that crept into it, this court became so odious, as to be utterly abolished. He gave audience to suitors twice a-day at set hours, entertaining them hospitably. His courage and resolution in this court appears from what has been already related ; but there is one remarkable instance, which ought not to be omitted. It happened before he was made privy-counsellor, when a gentleman of good account perceiving which way the court leaned in his cause (not according to his desire) told the archbishop, that upon another occasion there grew some speech of that cause before the lords of the council, and their lordships were of another opinion than his grace and the rest of the commissioners seemed to be : " What tellest thou me “ (said the archbishop) of the lords of the council ? I « tell thee, they are in these cases to be advised by us, " and not we by them.” Upon such like occasions he would oftentimes say to his private friends towards the latter part of his time, when in familiar discourse they observed his courage and stourness, “ that two things did “ help much to make a man confident in good causes, “ namely, Orbitas & Senectus, age and want of children; " and (said he) they steed me both.”
He was naturally of a choleric disposition, which, however, was so tempered with grace and prudence, that his choler rather served for a whetstone of his courage in just causes, than to be a weapon whetted against the person, goods, or good name of any other. When Pickering was censured in the star-chamber for libelling him after his death, it was observed by the earl of Salisbury (Cecil) who knew him well, - that there was nothing more to be
feared in his government, especially towards his latter <time, than his mildness and clemency.' This part of his character is sufficiently confirmed by the judicious Hooker, who, with that majestic simplicity which distin.
guishes guishes his pen, expresses it thus : He' (the archbishop, says he,) always governed with that moderation, which • used by patience to suppress boldness, and to make • them conquer that suffer.' As the reducing both the popish Recusants and Presbyterian Puritans to conformity with the established church, was what lay nearest to his heart, he plied both these kinds of people as well with his power and authority, as with his lenity and persuasion; and was so assiduous in preaching, that even after he was bishop of Worcester, unless extraordinary business of the Marches of Wales hindered him, he never failed to preach every Sunday, either in the city or in some neighbouring parish church. The like he did also when he was archbishop, and lay at Croydon, the queen being in her progress. Neither did any Sunday escape him in Kent, and he often preached the morning lecture both in Worcester and Canterbury, early enough to be present afterwards at sermon in the cathedral.
Upon the whole, Mr Strype remarks, that he lived and died in great reputation, and particularly happy in being highly esteemed for his wisdom, learning, and piety, by both his sovereigns, Q. Elizabeth and K. James ; who both consulted with him in all matters of the church, and in making laws and orders for the well government of it: And likewise in taking always his advice for proper men to be placed in the chief preferments of it; and who seeing the great danger of the overthrow of the religion as it was reformed at first, that is, of the doctrine of it by Papists, and its discipline, and constitution by the new Reformers, devoted himself, his pains, his studies, his learning, and his interest to the preserving of it, wherein he had success to the end of his days, though through much opposition.
Our Metropolitan printed no Books besides those above mentioned against Cartwright's ' Admonition.' His genius was turned not to a sedentary but an active Hife, which was handsomely intimated to the French ambassador Boys Sici, to whom, upon his enquiring what works the archbishop had published, for that he would willingly read his' books, who was reputed • The peerless prelate for piety and learning in our • days,' and whom in conference he found so grave, godly, and judicious; it was answered, That he only published certain books in the English tongue in defence of the Ecclesiastical Government, and being incidentally told, that he founded an hospital and a school, the ambassador immediately broke out into this expression : Profecto VOL. II.