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« thereof, or the Translations used in the Church of « England.” The whole Worke, perused and enlarged “ in divers places by the Author's owne Hand before his “ death; with sundry Quotations and Authorities out of “ Holy Scriptures, Councils, Fathers, and History : “ More amply than in the former Edition.”—This Work was published again in 1617, and 1633, in folio, as it was before. It is one of those, which the Author dedicated to the queen. The late great and good Mr Hervey (though he was, sometimes, rather too candid and indiscriminate, in his public recommendation of books) passed a very just encomium on Dr Fulke's noble performance ; which he stiles, a ' valuable piece of ancient Controversy ( and Criticism, full of sound Divinity, weighty Argu! ments, and important Observations. Adding, Would

the young Student be taught to discover the very Sinews

of popery, and be enabled to give an effectual blow to " that complication of errors, I scarce know a treatise ber« ter calculated for the purpose.'



IT has been asserted, that this great divine was born at

Alzano, a town of Italy, situated in the valley of Seri, or Serio. But the learned John Sturmius, who was not only Zanchius's contemporary, but one of his most intimate friends, expressly aflirms, in a speech delivered on a public and important occasion, that he was nobili natus familiá Bergomi ; born of an illustrious family, at Bergamo, the capital of a little province, in the North-West of Italy; anciently, a part of Gallia Cispadana ; but, in the year 1428, made a parcel of the Venetian territory; as it still continues. I look upon Sturmius's testimony, as decisive : It being hardly credible that he could mistake the native place of a colleague, whom he so highly valued, who was living at the very time, and with whom he had opportunity of conversing daily. Sturmius adds, that there was then remaining, at Bergamo, a fortress built (probably by some of Zanchius's ancestors,) known by the name of the Zanchian Tower.

In this city was our author born, February 2, 1516. At the time of his birth, part of the public service then performing was, a light to lighten the Gentiles, &c. And, by GOD's good providence, the Reformation broke forth, the very next year, in Germany, under the auspices of Luther; and began to spread far and wide.

At the age of twelve years, Zanchius lost his father, who died of the plague, A. D. 1528. His mother survived her husband but three years. Deprived thus of both his parents, Zanchius resolved on a monastic life : And accordingly joined himself to a society of Canons Regular. He did this, partly to improve himself in literature, and partly for the sake of being with some of his relations, who had before entered themselves of that house, Here he continued nineteen years ; chiefly devoting his studies to Aristotle, the languages, and school-divinity.

It was his happiness to become acquainted, very early in life, with Celsus Maximinian, count 'of Martinengo: Who, from being, like Zanchius, a bigoted Papist, by education; became, afterwards, a burning and shining light in the Reformed church. Of our Author's intimacy with this excellent nobleman, and its blessed effects, himself gives us the following account: " I « left Italy for the gospel's sake; to which I was not “ a little animated, by the example of count Maximinian,

a learned and pious personage, and my most dear bro“ther in the Lord. We had lived together, under one “ roof, and in a state of the strictest religious friendship, “ for the greater part of sixteen years; being, both of

us, canons regular; of nearly the same age and stand“ ing ; unisons in temper and disposition ; pursuing the

samé course of studies ; and, which was better still, “ joint hearers of Peter Martyr, when that apostolic man “ publicly expounded St Paul's Epistle to the Romans, “ and gave private lectures on the Psalms to us his « monks." From this memorable period we are, evidently, to date the æra of Zanchius's awakening to a true sight and experimental sense of divine things. His friend the count, and the learned Tremellius, were also converted, about the same time, under the ministry of Martyr.

This happy change being effected, our Author's studies began to run in a new channel.

" The count (says “ he) and myself betook ourselves to a diligent reading of “ the holy scriptures : To which we joined a perusal of the

best of the fathers, and particularly Şt Austin. For some



« city.


we went on thus in private ; and, in public, we « preached the gospel, as far as we were able, in its pu

rity. The count, whose gifts and graces were abun« dantly superior to mine, preached with much greater “ enlargement of spirit, and freedom of utterance, than I « could ever pretend to : It was, therefore, no wonder « that he found himself constrained to fly his country « before I was. The territory of the Grisons was his im“ mediáte place of retreat : From whence removing soon « after, he settled at Geneva ; where he commenced the « first pastor of the Protestant Italian church in that

Having faithfully executed this sacred office, “ for some years, he at length comfortably fell asleep in “ Christ," A. D. 1558, after having, on his deathbed, commended the oversight of his flock to the great Calvin.

It was in the year 1550, that Peter Martyr himself was obliged to quit Italy, where he could no longer preach, nor even stay, with safety. Toward the latter end of the same year, eighteen of his disciples were forced to follow their master from their native land ; of which number Zanchius was one. Being thus a refugee, or, as himself used to express it, “ delivered from his Babylonish cap“ tivity;" he went into Grisony, where he continued upwards of eight months; and then to Geneva, where, after

of near a twelvemonth, he received an invitation to England (upon the recommendation of Peter Martyr, then in this kingdom) to fill a divinity professorship here; I suppose, at Oxford, where Martyr had been for some time settled. Zanchius embraced the offer, and began his journey; but was detained on his way by a counter invifation to Strasburg, where the divinity chair had been lately vacated by the death of the excellent Caspar Hedio.

Zanchius was fixed at Strasburg, A. D. 1553, and taught there almost eleven years : But not without some uneasiness to himself, occasioned by the malicious opposition of several, who persecuted him for much the same reason that Cain hated righteous Abel, 1 John iii. 12. Matters, however, went on tolerably, during the life-time of Sturmius; who was then at the head of the university, and Zanchius's fast friend. At Strasburg it was that he presented the famous declaration of his faith concerning predestination, final perseverance, and the Lord's supper. He gave it to the senate October 22, 1562.

In proportion as the old senators and divines died off, one by one, Zanchius's situation at Strasburg grew more and more uncomfortable. Matters at length came to that


a stay

height, that he was required to subscribe to the Augsburg confession, on pain of losing his professorship. After mature deliberation, he did indeed subscribe, but with this declared restriction, niodà orthodoxè intelligatur ; " that " it should be understood only in an orthodox sense." Notwithstanding the express limitation with which he fettered his subscription, still this great and good man seems, for peace sake, to have granted too much, concerning the manner of Christ's presence in the Lord's supper; as appears by the first of the three theses, maintained by him about this time.

Not content with Zanchius's concessions, several of the Strasburg bigots persisted in raising a controversial dust ; particularly John Marbach, native of Schawben, or Swabia : A turbulent, unsteady theologist; pedantic, and abusive; a weak, but fiery disputer, who delighted to live in the smoke of contention and virulent debate. He was, among the rest of his good qualities, excessively loquacious; which made Luther say of him, or a very public occasion, Ori hujus Suevi nunquam aranea poterunt telas texere : « this talkative Swabian need not be afraid of spi• ders; for he keeps his lips in such constant motion, that

no spider will ever be able to weave a cobweb on his « mouth. His opponents tendered accusations against him, of errors in point of doctrine ; particularly for his supposed heterodoxy concerning the nature of the Lord's supper; his denial of the ubiquity of Christ's natural body, and his protesting against the lawfulness of images, &c. Nay, they even went so far, as to charge him with unsound opinions concerning predestination and the perseverance of the truly regenerate : So early did some of Luther's pretended disciples, after the death of that glo. rious Reformer (and he had not been dead at this time above fifteen years) begin to fali off from the doctrines he taught, though they still had the effrontery to call themselves by his name !

A grand occasion of this dissention, was a book concerning the eucharist, and in a defence of consubstantiation, written by one Heshusius ; a fierce, invidious preacher, who lavished the opprobrious names of heretic and atheist on all, without distinction, whose religious system went an hair's breadth above or below his own standard. In his preface, he grossly reflected on the elector palatine, (Frederic III.) Peter Martyr, Bullinger, Calvin, Zuinglius, Oecolampadius, and other great divines of that age. Zanchius, in mere respect to these venerable names, did, in


concert with the learned Sturmius, prevail with the magistrates of Strasburg to prohibit the impression. Mr Boyle is so candid as to acknowledge, that · Zanchius o caused this book to be suppressed, not on account of

its doctrine, which he left to the judgment of the s church ; but for the calumnies of the preface.' Zanchius was a zealous friend to religious liberty. He had too great a share of good sense and real religion, to pursue any measures, which simply tended either to restrain men from declaring their principles with safety, or to shackle the human mind in its enquiries after truth. But he ardently wished to see the contending parties of every denomination, carry on their debates with Christian meekness, modesty, and benevolence : And, where these amiable ingredients were wanting, he looked upon disputation as a malignant fever, endangering the health, peace, and safety of the church. When candour is lost, truth is rarely found.

Notwithstanding the precautions taken by the magistrates, Heshusius's incendiary piece stole through the press: And Zanchius's efforts, to stifle its publication, were looked upon, by the author's party, as an injury never to be forgiven. They left no methods unessayed, to remove him from his professorship. Many compromising expedients were proposed, by the moderate of both parties. The chapter of St Thomas (of which Zanchius himself was a canon) met, to consider what course should be pursued. By them, it was referred to a select committee of thirteen. Zanchius offered to debate, the agitated points, in a friendly and peaceable manner, with his opponents : Which offer not being accepted, he made several journies to other churches and universities in different parts of Germany; and requested their opinions: Which he brought with him in writing. Things, however, could not be settled, till the senate of Strasburg convened an assembly, from other districts, consisting partly of divines, and partly of persons learned in the laws. These referees, after hear. ing both sides, recurred to the old fruitless expedient, of agreeing on certain articles, to which they advised each party to subscribe. Zanchius, desirous of laying the unchristian heats, and, at the same time, no less determined to preserve integrity and a good conscience ; subscribed in these cautious terms: Hanc doctrinæ formulam ut piam agnosco, ita etiam recipio : “I acknowledge this summary " of doctrine to be pious, and so I admit it.” This condescension on Zanchius's part, was not followed by


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