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of books.” He affected ever rather to express himself fuently, neatly, and with great weight of argument and strength of reason, than in hunting after the flowers of rhetoric, and the cadences of words, though he understood them, no man better, and wrote a dialogue in which he comprehended the sum of the art of rhetoric.
The ninth of February, 1544, he commenced master of arts, the charge of it being borne by his good tutor Mr Parkhurst, who had then the rich rectory of Cleve, in the diocese of Gloucester, which is of better value than some of our smaller bishoprics. Nor was this the only instance whereby he partook of this good man's bounty, for he used twice or thrice in a year to invite him to his house, and not dismiss him without presents, money, and other things, that were necessary for the carrying on his studies. And one time above the rest, coming into his chamber in the morning, when he was to go back to the university, he seized upon his and his companions purses, saying, " What money, I wonder, have these miserable « beggarly Oxonians ?" And finding them all very empty, he stuffed them with money, till they became sufficiently weighty. I
Edward VI. succeeding his father on the twenty-eighth of July, 1546, the Reformation went on more regularly and swiftly, and Peter Martyr being by that prince called out of Germany, and made professor of divinity at Oxford, Mr Jewel was one of his most constant hearers; and by the help of characters, which he had invented for his own use, took all his lectures almost as perfectly as he spoke them.
About this time, one Dr Richard Smith, predecessor to Peter Martyr in that chair at Oxford, who was more a sophister than a divine, made an insult upon Peter Martyr, and interrupted him publicly and unexpectedly in his lecture : The German was not to be baffled by a surprise, but extempore recollected his lecture, and defended it with great presence of mind; the two parties in the schools being just upon the point of a tumult, the Protestants for the present professor, and the Papists for the old one.
Peter Martyr, nettled with this affront, (which happened on the twenty-eighth of May, 1549) challenged Smith to dispute with him publicly, and appointed him a day : But Smith, fearing to be called in question for this uproar, fied before the time to St Andrews in Scotland. But then Thresham and Chadsy, two, popish doctors, and one Morgan, entered the lists against Peter Martyr, and
there. there was a very sharp, but regular dispute betwixt them concerning the Lord's-Supper. And Mr Jewel, having then a large share in Peter Martyr's affections, was by him appointed to take the whole disputation in writing, which was printed in the year 1549. For the regulating this disputation, the council sent to Oxford, Henry bishop of Lincoln, Dr R. Cox, chancellor of that university, Dr Simon Haines, Richard Morison, Esq. and Dr Christopher Nevison, commissioners and moderators. · In the year 1551, Mr Jewel took his degree of bachelor of divinity, when he preached an excellent Latin sermon, which is extant almost perfect ; taking for his text the words of St Peter, 1 Pet. iv. ll. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God, &c. Upon which words he raised such excellent doctrines, and made such wise and holy reflections in so pure and elegant a style, as convinced every body of his great ability and deserts.
About the same time, Mr Jewel took a small living near Oxford called Sunningwell, more out of a desire to do good, than for the salary, which was but small; whither he went once a fortnight on foot, though he was lame, and it was troublesome to him to walk; and at the same time preached frequently both privately in his own college, and publicly in the university.
Besides his old friend Mr Parkhurst, amongst others, one Mr Curtop a fellow of the same college, afterwards canon of Christ-Church, allowed him forty shillings a year, which was a considerable sum in those days; and one Mr Chambers, who was entrusted with distributing the charity of some Londoners to the poor scholars of Oxford, allowed Mr Jewel out of it six pounds a year for books.
Edward VI. dying on the sixth of July, in the year 1553, and Q. Mary succeeding him, and being proclaimed the seventeenth of the same month, Jewel was one of the first that felt the fury of this tempest, and before any law was made, or so much as any order given by the queen, was expelled out of the college by the fellows, upon their private authority, who had nothing to object against him, but, 1. His following Peter Martyr. 2. His preaching some doctrines contrary to Popery. 3. And his taking orders according to the laws then in force : But Fuller in his Church History says, he was expelled for refusing to be present at mass. As for his life, it was acknowledged to be angelical and extremely honest, by John Moren, a fellow of the same college ; who yet, at the same time, could not forbear calling him Lutheran, Zuinglian, and heretic. He took his leave of the college in these words, as near as I can render them in English. .
“ In my last lectures I have, (said he,) imitated the « custom of famished men, who when they see their meat « likely to be suddenly and unexpectedly snatched from " them, devour it with the greater haste and greediness. 6 For whereas I intended thus to put an end to my lec66 tures, and perceived that I was like forthwith to be 66 silenced, I made no scruple to entertain you (contrary " to my former usage) with much unpleasant and ill 6 dressed discourse ; for I see I have incurred the displea
sure and hatred of some, but whether deservedly or no, “ I shall leave to their consideration ; for I am persuaded " that those, who have driven me from hence, would “ not suffer me to live any where if it were in their power. " But as for me, I willingly yield to the times, and if " they can derive to themselves any satisfaction from my « calamity, I would not hinder them from it. But as “ Aristides, when he went into exile and forsook his « country, prayed that they might never more think of « him ; so I beseech God to grant the same to my fellow « collegians ; and what can they wish for more ? Pardon « me, my hearers, if grief has seized me, being to be “ torn from that place against my will, where I have “ passed the first part of my life, where I have lived plea«s santly, and been in some honour and employment. 6 But why do I thus delay to put an end to my misery " by one word ? Wo is me, that (as with my extreme « sorrow and resentment I at last speak it) I must say fare« well my studies, farewell to these beloved houses, fare“ well thou pleasant seat of learning, farewell to the « most delightful conversation with you, farewell young “ men, farewell lads, farewell fellows, farewell brethren, « farewell ye beloved as my eyes, farewell ALL; fare6 well!"
Thus did he take his leave of his lecture, fellowship, and college, and was reduced at one blow to great poverty and desertion : But he found for some time a place of harbour in Broadgates-Hall, another college in the same university. Here he met with some short gleams of comfort; for the university of Oxford more kind than his college, and to alleviate the miseries of his shipwrecked estate, chose him to be her orator, in which capacity he curiously penned a gratulatory letter or address (as the term now is) to the queen, on the behalf and in the name
of the university, expressing in it the countenance of the Roman senators in the beginning of Tiberius's reign, exquisitely tempered and composed, to keep out joy and sadness, which both strove at the same time to display their colours in it; the one for dead Augustus, the other for reigning Tiberius. And upon the assurance of several of her nobles, that the queen would not change the established religion, expressing some hopes she would abide by this assurance, which was confirmed then to them by the promise the queen had made to the Suffolk and Norfolk gentry, who had rescued her out of the very jaws of ruin. Fuller says, that the writing this letter was put upon him with a design to ruin him, but there is not the least colour for this surmise ; he being so very lately, seasonably and kindly chosen orator, when he was so injuriously expelled out of his own college ; but it is much more probable the sweetness, smoothness, and briskness of his style, was both the reason why he was chosen orator first, and then employed to pen this letter. The sum or heads of which are in Mr Laurence Humfrey's life of Jewel : But there is no entire copy extant.
It is observed by the last-mentioned author, that whilst Jewel was reading this letter to Dr Treşham, vice-chancellor, the great bell of Christ-Church, which this doctor having caused to be new hung a few days before, had christened by the name of Mary, tolled, and that hearing her pleasant voice now call him to his beloved mass, he burst out into an exclamation, 60 delicate and sweet har(mony! O beautiful Mary, how musically she sounds, « how strangely she pleaseth my ears ! So Mr Jewels sweet pen was forced to give way to the more acceptable tinkling of this new lady. And we' may easily conjecture how the poor man took it.
Being ejected out of all he had, he became obnoxious to the insolence and pride of all his enemies, which he endeavoured to allay by humility and compliance, which yet could not mitigate their rage and fury; but rather, in all probability, heightened their malice, and drew more affronts upon the meek man. But amongst all his enemies, none sought his ruin more eagerly than Dr Marshal, dean of Christ-Christ, who had changed his religion now twice already; and did twice or thrice more in the reign of Q. Elizabeth : He having neither .conscience nor religion of his own, was very desirous to * make Jewel's conscience or life a papal sacrifice.
thoused to be of Mam' to bi delicate ally sher Jewels
ture he of this forced to aseth my music and swe
makese nor" sono. Deady; anhrist, wh more!
In order to this, he sends to Jewel by the Inquisitors a bead-roll of popish doctrines to be subscribed by him upon pain of fire and faggot, and other grievous tortures ; the poor man having neither friend nor time allowed him to consult with, took the pen in his hand, and saying, “ Have you a mind to see how well I can write ?” subscribed his name hastily, though with great reluctance.
But this no way mitigated the rage of his enemies against him ; they knew hts great love to, and familiarity with Peter Martyr, and nothing less than his life would satisfy these blood-hounds, of which turn-coat Marshal was the fiercest: So being forsaken by his friends for this his sinful compliance, and still pursued like a wounded deer by his enemies; but more exagitated by the inward remorses and reproaches of his own conscience, he resolved at last to flee for his life.
And it was but time; for if he had staid but one night longer, or gone the direct way to London, he had perished by their fury: One Augustin Berner, a Switzer, first a servant to bishop Latimer, and afterwards a minister, found him lying upon the ground almost dead with vexation, weariness, (for this lame man was forced to make his escape on foot,) and cold, and setting him upon an horse, conveyed him to the lady Ann Warcupps, a widow, who entertained him for some time, and then sent him up to
London, where he was in more safety. * Having twice or thrice changed his lodgings in London, Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, a great minister of state in those times, furnished him with money for his journey, and procured him a ship for his transportation beyond the seas. And well it had been if he had gone sooner ; but his friend Mr Parkhurst hearing of the restoring of the mass, fied forthwith; and poor Mr Jewel knowing nothing of it, went to Cleve, in Gloucestershire, to beg his advice and assistance, being almost killed by his long journey on foot in bitter cold and snowy weather, and being forced at last to return to Oxford, more dejected and confounded in his thoughts than he went out; which miseries were the oc- , casions of his fall, as God's mercy was the procurer both of his escape and recovery.
For being once arrived at Francfort in the beginning of the second year of Q. Mary's reign, he found there Mr Richard Chambers, his old benefactor, Dr Robert Horne, afterwards bishop of Winchester, Dr Sandys, bishop of London, Sir Francis Knollys, a privy-counsellor, and afterwards' lord-treasurer, and his eldest* son, &c. these