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TO A.D. 1558.]



spirit of antagonism that embittered controversy in succeeding years. In January, 1554, Sir Thomas Carew failed in a demonstration against Queen Mary's union with Philip of Spain, son of the Emperor Charles V. Before the end of the month, Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger, son of the poet, headed insurrection against the proposed marriage, marched to London, and there yielded himself prisoner on the 7th of February.

He was executed on the uth of April. Mary was married to Philip of Spain on the 25th of June. In 1555 seventy-one heretics were executed ; in 1556, eighty-three ; in 1557, eighty-eight; in 1558, forty.

John Heywood ($ 49), who had not been banished from court in the reign of Edward VI., and who had shown real liking for Queen Mary when she was a princess, in her father's lifetime, remained at her court, and had her confidence. After her death he went abroad, and died at Mechlin in 1565.

Nicholas Udall ($ 48, 58) also retained Mary's good-will. He had spoken highly of her in a special Prologue to her part of the translation from Erasmus's New Testament Paraphrase, and he was employed, by her warrant, in directing a dramatic entertainment for the feast of her coronation ; also in preparing dialogues and interludes to be performed before her. In 1554 or 1555, Udall was made head master of the school settled at Westminster by Henry VIII., in 1540. In November, 1556, Mary re-established the monastery, and there was an end of Udall's office, but a month later there was an end also of his life.

Sir Thomas Smith ($ 51, 56) under Mary was deprived of all his offices, but had for his learning a pension of £100.

Sir John Cheke ($ 51, 56), at the death of Edward VI., was one of those who sought to secure the succession of Lady Jane Grey. He was sent to the Tower, but for his learning his life was saved, and he was permitted to leave England. While abroad his estates were confiscated. He was seized by Philip at Brussels, and sent to England, where he escaped death by recantation. The queen then gave him means of life, but made life a torture by compelling him to sit on the bench at the judgment and condemnation of those heretics who did not faint in the trial of their faith. His age was but forty-three when he died, in September, 1557.

Two books were printed by Richard Tottel in 1557, namely, Totteľs Miscellany, and a Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandantagonist in Scotland, received pensions from the King of England; and the garrison-Castilians as they were called-in the strong castle by the sea, received also supplies of money and victuals from Henry VIII. In April, 1547, Knox joined the Castilians. Sir David Lindsay also went among them. Their chaplain had been worsted in argument by an orthodox dean. Knox came to the rescue with his pen. Then many of them urged Knox to preach. He had renounced his priests' orders, and said he had no vocation; but it was urged on him that every congregation has an inherent right to call any qualified person to be its teacher. So Knox began his preaching. In August of the same year a French squadron obliged the garrison to capitulate, and Knox became for two years a prisoner in the French galleys. When on one occasion an image of the Virgin was brought round for the prisoners to kiss, Knox said, “ Trouble me not. Such an idol is accursed, therefore I will not touch it.” When it was forced on him, he threw it into the river, saying, “Let Our Lady now save herself. She is light enough; let her swim.”

54. The Scottish Reformers of those days completed “A Compendious Book of Godly and Spiritual Songs, collected out of sundrie parts of Scripture, with sundrie of other ballates changed out of prophaine sangis," and set the best of the gay tunes to new words, breathing love of God or defiance of the pope, in this fashion :

“The paip, that pagane full of pryd,

Hee hes us blinded lang ;
For where the blind the blind doe gyde,

No wonder both goe wrang.
Of all iniquitie,
Like prince and king, hee led the ring.
Hay trix, trim goe trix, under the greenwode tree.”

On New Year's-day, 1540, when Francis I. and Charles V. rode into Paris together, and Sir Thomas Wyatt (§ 43), Ambassador Extraordinary from England, was commissioned to search quietly into the minds of those two princes, Clement Marot presented to King Francis his translation of thirty of the Psalms of David set to light song tunes or airs from the vaudevilles. Marot translated twenty more; they became even fashionable substitutes for songs on idler themes. Calvin adopted themwhen set to graver strains, written specially for them by Guillaume Franc—for use in the churches of Geneva, and published them with a preface of his own, in which he com

TO A.D. 1545.]



mended the fit use of Church music. In England Thomas Sternhold felt the new impulse, and translated during Henry VIII.'s reign some of the Psalms into English. Sternhold was born in Hampshire, and after education at Oxford, became groom of the robes to Henry VIII., who liked him well enough to bequeath him a hundred marks. He desired to do with his psalms in England what had been done in France by Marot, “thinking thereby that the courtiers would sing them instead of their sonnets, but did not, only some few excepted,” whose religion we respect more than their taste.

55. We now pass out of the reign of Henry VIII. with Roger Ascham, who was born, about the year 1515, at Kirkby Wiske, near Northallerton, in Yorkshire. His father, house steward in the family of Lord Scrope, had two daughters and three sons. Young Roger Ascham was educated by Sir Humphrey Wingfield, of whom he said afterwards, “ This worshi ful man hath ever loved, and used to have many children brought up in learning in his house, amonges whom I myself was one, for whom at term times he would bring down from London both bow and shafts. And when they should play he would go with them himself into the field, see them shoot, and he that shot fairest should have the best bow and shafts, and he that shot ill-favouredly should be mocked of his fellows till he shot better. Would to God all England had used or would use to lay the foundation of youth after the example of this worshipful man in bringing up children in the Book and the Bow ; by which two things the whole commonwealth, both in peace and war, is chiefly valid and defended withal.” Sir Humphrey was enforcing the spirit of the law that required all boys between seven and seventeen to be provided with a long-bow and two arrows; every Englishman older than seventeen to provide himself with a bow and four arrows; and every bowyer to make at least two cheap bows for every dear one. At fifteen Roger Ascham became a student at St. John's College, Cambridge. He took his B.A. in 1534; obtained a fellowship in his college; and in 1537 became a college lecturer on Greek. He was at home for a couple oí years after 1540, during which time he obtained a pension of forty shillings from the Archbishop of York. It ceased at the archbishop's death, in 1544. In that year, 1544, Ascham wrote Toxophilus, and lost his parents, who both died on the same day. In 1545, being then twenty-nine years old, he presented." Toxophilus" to the king, at Greenwich, and was rewarded with a pension of ten pounds.

“Toxophilus” was a scholar's book, designed to encourage among all gentlemen and yeomen of England the practice of archery for defence of the realm. The treatise was divided into two books of dialogue between Philologus and Toxophilus; the first book containing general argument to commend shooting, the second a particular description of the art of shooting with the long-bow. Ascham argued for it as a worthy recreationone very fit for scholars—that in peace excludes ignoble pastimes, and in war gives to a nation strength. Men should seek, he said, to excel in it, and make it a study. Then he proceeded in the second part of his work to treat it as a study. The book was published in 1545, with a dedication to Henry VIII., and a preface, in which Ascham justified his use of English. To have written in another tongue would, he said, have better advanced his studies and his credit ; but he wished to be read by the gentlemen and yeomen of England. He could not surpass what others had done in Greek and Latin; while English had usually been written by ignorant men so meanly, both for the matter and handling, that no man could do worse. Ascham was, in his preface to “Toxophilus,” the first to suggest that English prose might be written with the same scholarly care that would be required for choice and ordering of words if one wrote Latin. “He that will write well in any tongue,” said Ascham, “must follow this counsel of Aristotle, to speak as the common people do, to think as wise men do; and so should every man understand him, and the judgment of wise men allow him. Many English writers have not done so, but using strange words as Latin, French and Italian, do make all things dark and hard. Once I communed with a man which reasoned the English tongue to be enriched and increased thereby, saying, “Who will not praise that feast where a man shall drink at a dinner both wine, ale, and beer?' 'Truly,' quod I, “they be all good, every one taken by himself alone, but if you put malmsey and sack, red wine and white, ale and beer, and all in one pot, you shall make a drink neither easy to be known, nor yet wholesome for the body.'” The manly simplicity of Ascham's own English is in good accord with his right doctrine. His Latin was so well esteemed that in the year after the appearance of “Toxophilus” he succeeded Cheke as Public Orator, and wrote the official letters of the University.

TO A.D. 1553.]



and a

Ascham was famous also for his penmanship, and taught writing to the prince whose reign we now pass into, Edward VI. (1547-1553), at the date of his accession, between nine and ten years old. The Earl of Hertford was made Protector, as Duke of Somerset. Under Edward VI., Ascham had his pension confirmed and augmented. In 1548 he became tutor to the Princess Elizabeth, at Cheston, but he was annoyed by her steward, and had therefore returned to the University when, in 1550, he was through Cheke's good offices appointed secretary to Sir Richard Morison, then going as Ambassador to Charles V. He reached Augsburg in October, was away more than a year, and published in 1553 a Report and Discourse written by Roger Ascham, of the Affairs and State of Germany and the Emperor Charles his Court, during certain years while the said Roger was there.

56. John Cheke ($ 51), who had assisted for the last three years in Edward's education, was a great scholar him cause of scholarship in others who earned reputation and looked back to him with gratitude. He was knighted by King Edward, and had grants of land. He became also in this reign a privy councillor and secretary of state. Sir John Cheke drew force for the real work of life out of his studies. He was especially familiar with Demosthenes, and said that the study of him taught Englishmen how to speak their minds.

Thomas Smith (51), who had been travelling among the Universities of France and Italy towards the close of Henry VIII.'s reign, and took the doctor's degree at Padua, was, after the accession of Edward VI., made Provost of Eton; in 1548 he was knighted. Sir Thomas Smith became, like his friend Sir John Cheke, a secretary of state under Edward, and he was employed as an ambassador.

57. In the first year of the new rule the Protector Somerset endeavoured to compel the union of North and South by enforcing Henry VIII.'s policy of a marriage between Edward of England and Mary Queen of Scots. “If we two,” he wrote, of the two countries, “ being made one by amity, be most able to defend us against all nations, and having the sea for wall, the mutual love for garrison, and God for defence, should make so noble and well-agreeing a monarchy that neither in peace we may be ashamed nor in war afraid of any worldly or foreign power, why should not you be as desirous of the same and have as much cause to rejoice at it as we?” John Knox was in the

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