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accomplishing her ends, for which she spurned over all respects both of conscience and of shame. This woman did bear such invincible hate, first against the queen-dowager, for light causes and womens' quarrels, especially for that she had precedency of place before her, being wife to the greatest peer in the land ; then to the Lord Sudley for her sake, that, albeit the queendowager died by childbirth, yet would not her malice either die or decrease, but continually she rubbed into the duke's dull capacity, that the Lord Sudley, dissenting from him in opinion of religion, sought nothing more than to take away his life, as well in regard of the common cause of religion, as thereby happily to regain his place. Many other things, she boldly feigned, being assured of easy belief in her heedless hearer, always fearful and suspicious (as of feeble spirit), but then more than ever by reason of some late opposition against him. Her persuasions she cunningly intermixed with tears, affirming, that she would depart from him, as willing rather to hear both of his disgraces and dangers, than either to see the one or participate of the other.

The duke embracing this woman's counsel (a woman's counsel indeed, and nothing the better), yielded himself both to advise and devise for destruction of his brother. The Earl of Warwick had his finger in the business, and drew others also to give either furtherance or way to her violent desires; being well content she should have her mind, so as the duke might thereby incur infamy and hate. Hereupon the Lord Sudley was arrested, and sent to the Tower; and in very short time after, condemned by Act of Parliament. And within few days after his condemnation, a warrant was sent under the hand of his brother the duke, whereby his head was delivered to the axe. His own fierce courage hastened his death, because equally balanced between doubt and disdain, he was desirous rather to die at once, than to linger long upon courtesy and in fear.

The accusations against him contained much frivolous matter, or call it pitiful, if you please. The Act of Parliament expresses these causes of his attainder. For attempting to get into his custody the person of the king and government of the realm ; for making much provision of money and of victuals; for endeavouring to marry the Lady Elizabeth, the king's sister; for persuading the king in his tender age to take upon him the rule and order of himself. The proofs might easily be made, because he was never called to his answer. But as well the protestations at the point



of his death as the open course and carriage of his life, cleared him in opinion of many. So doubtful are all weighty matters, whilst some take all they hear for certain, others making question of any truths, posterity enlarging both. Dr. Latimer pretending all the gravity and sincerity of a professed divine, yet content to be serviceable to great men's ends, declared in a sermon before the king that whilst the Lord Sudley was a prisoner in the Tower he wrote to the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth, the king's sisters, that they should revenge his death ; which indeed the Lady Mary afterwards more truly did, by executing the Earl of Warwick, than either she was, or at that time could in particular be required. Many other imputations he cast forth besides, most doubted, many known to be untrue. And so, whereas Papinian, a civil lawyer but a heathen, chose rather to die than to defend the murder which the Emperor Caracalla had done upon his brother Geta, some theologians have been employed to defile places erected only for religion and truth by defending oppressions and factions, staining their professions and the good arts which they had learned, by publishing odious untruths upon report and credit of others.

O wives ! the most sweet poison, the most desired evil in the world! Certainly as it is true, as Syracides saith, that there is no malice like the malice of a woman, so no mischief wanteth where a malicious woman beareth sway. A woman was first given to man for a comforter, but not for a counsellor, much less a controller and director; and therefore in the first sentence against man this cause is expressed, Because thou obeyedst the voice of thy wife. And doubtless the Protector by being thus ruled to the death of his brother, seemed with his left hand to have cut off his right ; for hereupon many of the nobility cried out upon him, that he was a blood-sucker, a parricide, a villain, and that it was not fit the king should be under the protection of such a ravenous wolf. Soon after it was given forth, and believed by many, that the king was dead; whereupon he passed in great state through the city of London, to manifest that he was both alive and in good health. Whether this speech were spread either by adventure or by art, it is uncertain ; certain it is, it did something shake the strength of the king's affection towards the Protector.

(From the Same.)


The last sickness of Queen Mary was both exceeding sharp and of long continuance, her body being wearied, and almost wasted, with the violence of her disease; her mind anguished with thoughts, no less strange for variety, than strong for the great importance they drew, whereof some (doubtless) were secret and singular. And whilst she lay thus languishing under the heavy hand of death, many false rumours were spread abroad that she was dead : whereupon a notable example might have been seen how in a royal state the surety of the common people depends much upon the life and safety of their prince. For every man's mind was then travailed with a strange confusion of conceits, all things being immoderately either dreaded or desired. Every report was greedily both inquired and received, all truths suspected, divers tales believed, many improbable conjectures hatched and nourished. Invasion of strangers, civil dissension, the doubtful disposition of the succeeding prince, were cast in every man's conceit as present perils ; but no man did busy his wits in contriving remedies. They who held themselves in danger, seemed to desire nothing but safety; they who apprehended any opinion of safety, did rise into unreasonable desire of liberty ; wherein they were as various as in anything beside, as well for the particulars, as for the limits of that which they desired. In this medley of thoughts, some thought to save themselves by adherents, some by adjoining to those who had more to lose than themselves ; some stood upon their proper strength, either for their own preservation, or for abating of such as they esteemed too great. Generally, the rich were fearful, the wise careful, the honestly-disposed doubtful, the discontented and the desperate, and all such whose desires were both immoderate and evil, joyful, as wishing trouble, the gate of spoil.

(From Annals of Elizabeth.)


AND for that the presence of the prince is of greatest moment to establish affairs, the queen, the next day after her title was proclaimed, removed from Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, where she then

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lay, towards London ; and was upon the way encountered and entertained in all places with such a concourse of people, with so lively representations of love, joy, and hope, that it far exceeded her expectation. The people of all sorts (even such whose fortunes were unlike either to be amended or impaired by change) went many miles out the city to see her, some upon particular affection to her person, some upon opinion of good to the State, some upon an ordinary levity and delight in change, and not a few because they would do as others did; all with like fervency contending who should most nearly approach unto her, who should most cheerfully bestow upon her all honourable titles and happy wishes.

Now, if ever any person had either the gift or the style to win the hearts of people, it was this queen ; and if ever she did express the same, it was at that present, in coupling mildness with majesty as she did, and in stately stooping to the meanest sort. All her faculties were in motion, and every motion seemed a well guided action; her eye was set upon one, her ear listened to another, her judgment ran upon a third, to a fourth she addressed her speech; her spirit seemed to be everywhere, and yet so entire in herself, as it seemed to be nowhere else. Some she pitied, some she commended, some she thanked, at others she pleasantly and wittily jested, contemning no person, neglecting no office; and distributing her smiles, looks, and graces, so artificially, that thereupon the people again redoubled the testimonies of their joys ; and afterwards, raising everything to the highest strain, filled the ears of all men with immoderate extolling their prince.

She was a lady, upon whom nature had bestowed, and well placed, many of her fairest favours ; of stature mean, slender, straight, and amiably composed ; of such state in her carriage as every motion of her seemed to bear majesty: her hair was inclined to pale yellow, her forehead large and fair, a seeming seat for princely grace; her eyes lively and sweet, but short-sighted; her nose somewhat rising in the midst ; the whole compass of her countenance somewhat long, but yet of admirable beauty, not so much in that which is termed the flower of youth, as in a most delightful composition of majesty and modesty in equal mixture. But without good qualities of mind the gifts of nature are like painted flowers, without either virtue or sap; yea, sometimes they grow horrid and loathsome. Now her virtues were such as might suffice to make an Ethiopian beautiful, which, the more a man knows and understands, the more he shall admire and love. In

life, she was most innocent ; in desires, moderate; in purpose, just; in spirit, above credit and almost capacity of her sex ; of divine wit, as well for depth of judgment, as for quick conceit and speedy expedition ; of eloquence, as sweet in the utterance, so ready and easy to come to the utterance; of wonderful knowledge both in learning and affairs ; ski.ful not only in the Latin and Greek, but also in divers other foreign languages: none knew better the hardest art of all others, that is, of commanding men, nor could more use themselves to those cares without which the royal dignity could not be supported. She was religious, magnanimous, merciful, and just; respective of the honour of others, and exceeding tender in the touch of her own. She was lovely and loving, the two principal bands of duty and obedience. She was very ripe and measured in counsel and experience, as well not to let go occasions, as not to take them when they were green. She maintained justice at home, and arms abroad, with great wisdom and authority in either place. Her majesty seemed to all to shine through courtesy : but as she was not easy to receive any to especial grace, so was she most constant to those whom she received ; and of great judgment to know to what point of greatness men were fit to be advanced. She was rather liberal than magnificent, making good choice of the receivers ; and by this cause was thought weak by some against the desire of money. But it is certain that beside the want of treasure which she found, her continual affairs in Scotland, France, the Low Countries, and in Ireland, did occasion great provision of money, which could not be better supplied than by cutting off either excessive or unnecessary expense at home. Excellent queen! what do my words but wrong thy worth ? what do I but gild gold ? what but show the sun with a candle, in attempting to praise thee, whose honour doth fly over the whole world upon the two wings of magnanimity and justice, whose perfection shall much dim the lustre of all other that shall be of thy sex ? I will no longer stay upon general descriptions, but proceed to such particular acts as shall justify much more than I have said.

When she came to London, she was lodged the first night in the Charter-house, where many great persons, either for birth, or worthiness (or place in the state) resorted unto her ; and now rising from dejected fears to ambitious hopes, contended who should catch the first hold of her favour. The Queen did bear herself moderately and respectively to all, desiring them, if they

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