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dresses, sermons, orations, essays, illustrations of all kinds, and almost every species of composition, may be devoted to this purpose.

96. Writings designed simply to Amuse.-But besides the above-mentioned objects, many productions are designed simply to amuse. This object, in its place, is as laudable as any other. Not only many humorous and witty productions belong to this class, but also many essays, descriptions, discussions, and even addresses seek to interest and entertain, not by presenting new information, not by showing the rightfulness of any opinion or course of action, but simply by expressing thoughts in such a way as to occupy the mind and please the reader or hearer.

97. A mixed Object.-It should also be noticed that few productions are purely didactic, or logical, or hortatory, or amusing. In some all these purposes are blended, and few are destitute of more than one of them. It is superfluous to enumerate all the various kinds of productions, but a few of the leading classes will be noticed.

98. Morality of Rhetoric. -One principle ought, however, to be understood by every writer. It is not a worthy object simply to produce a good specimen of composition of any kind. Rhetoric is not an end, but a means. We do not write that we may make books, nor speak that we may pronounce orations, but to produce thought and feeling in others. We can never properly appreciate Rhetoric unless we understand its true aim. While, however, it is a means of exerting influence on other minds, it also tends, re



flexively, to strengthen and discipline the mind of one who studies it and obeys its principles. It is a legitimate and proper thing for one mind to influence another. It was by rhetoric as well as by logic, that such men even as Paul, and Augustine, and Bacon, and Newton, created so great an impression upon other minds. But they spoke and wrote, not to make good compositions, but to influence their fellow-men.



99. Definition and Description.-SPEAKING precedes writing, and therefore a consideration of speeches naturally takes the first place.

Any expression of thought or feeling by words may be called a speech. Conversation is a series of speeches. Any one who can converse accurately, intelligently, and readily, can, by exercise, speak well in public. The daily practice of conversing correctly lays a broad and sure foundation for success, both in writing and in public speaking. All the principles of Rhetoric may be more or less applied in conversation.

Addresses are of an almost infinite variety in length, subject, character, and style. It is difficult to lay down any general rules for their construction, still some considerations on the subject may be of practical value.

100. Addresses should have sufficient Material.—Addresses are often deficient in fact and sentiment. The most common fault in them is too great diffuseness of style and repetition of thought. The introduction, or first part of the address, should be so constructed as naturally to enlist the favorable attention of the audi


ence; and if any argument or statement of opinions or facts is necessary, which it is thought may be uninteresting or distasteful, it should be given after the attention and good-will of the audience are conciliated. The conclusion of an address ought to be forcible. There is room often for wit, illustration, argument, and the display of almost every kind of power of thought and feeling, in this kind of composition.

101. Should be Written.-It is an excellent practice for young speakers to write out their addresses in full, and commit them to memory, though, after some practice, it will be easy to pronounce the address after having memorized only the order of the thoughts, trusting to the activity of the mind at the time to suggest proper words, and even additional thoughts. Finally, one may often speak efficiently without previously writing on the subject, though very few persons can excel as speakers who do not write much, and often write their speeches.

102. Opinion of Brougham on this Subject. The opinion of that successful orator, Lord Brougham, on this subject, is worthy of consideration. In his Inaugural Discourse, when elected Lord rector of the University of Glasgow, delivered to the students, he said:


"I should lay it down as a rule, admitting of no exception, that a man will speak well in proportion as he has written much, and that, with equal talents, he will be the finest extempore speaker, when no time for preparing is allowed, who has prepared himself the most sedalously when he had an opportunity of delivering a premeditated speech. All the exceptions which I have ever heard cited to this principle are apparent ones only; proving nothing more than that some few men of rare genius have become great speakers without preparation; in no wise showing that with preparation they would not have

reached a much higher pitch of excellence. The admitted superiority of the ancients in all oratorical accomplishments is the best proof of my position; for their careful preparation is undeniable; nay, in Demosthenes (of whom Quintilian says that his style indicates more premeditation than Cicero's) we can trace, by the recurrence of the same passage, with progressive improvements, in different speeches, how nicely he polished the more exquisite parts of his compositions. I could point out favorite passages, occurring as often as three several times, with variations and manifest amendment.

"I am now requiring not merely great preparation while the speaker is learning his art, but after he has accomplished his education. The most splendid effort of the most mature orator will be always finer for being previously elaborated with much care.

"Such preparation is quite consistent with the introduction of passages prompted by the occasion, nor will the transition from the one to the other be perceptible in the execution of an accomplished master. I have known skillful and attentive hearers completely deceived in this matter, and taking for extemporaneous passages what previously existed in the manuscript, and were pronounced without the variation of a particle or pause."

103. Manuscript Addresses.-These directions are applicable in some extent even to those who habitually use the manuscript when addressing an audience, for there are careless habits of writing as well as of speaking. But it is to be regretted that so many public speakers are binding themselves to this slavish habit. The memory should be trained till he who aspires to accomplish the greatest effect can deliver easily what he has previously wrought out, and add efficiently what the inspiration of the hour suggests.

104. Lectures.-A Lecture is generally a written production upon some particular topic of value, designed

be read before an audience, though lectures are sometimes given from memory.

Lectures may be very various in character, but generally they should preserve unity. Some one central

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