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INTRODUCTION.

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Part IV. naturally follows as an investigation of INVENTION as an art, showing how material may be best acquired and employed, according to previous directions.

Part V. contains some general principles and directions pertaining to ELOCUTION.

This is believed to comprehend what belongs prop. erly to Rhetoric.

PART I.

RHETORIC, AND ITS RELATION TO LANGUAGE.

RHETORIC.

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL EXPRESSION OF THOUGHT AND FEELING.

1. Definitions.-RHETORIC is the science and art of expressing thought and feeling by language in the best possible manner.

Aristotle defined Rhetoric to be "the faculty of perceiving all the possible means of persuasion on every subject." The object of a speaker or writer is sometimes, however, not to persuade, but to instruct or to amuse. Quintilian describes Rhetoric as the "science of speaking well;" a concise and beautiful definition, if it be understood also to include writing.

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Speech is primarily uttered, but much is now written to be printed and read, perhaps silently, and Rhetoric embraces the rules by which language, whether uttered or written, may be the most effective. It is immaterial, generally, whether, in the discussion of these rules, the primary attention be directed to speaking or writing. When the nature of the subject

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