## Biostatistical Methods in EpidemiologyAn introduction to classical biostatistical methods in epidemiology Biostatistical Methods in Epidemiology provides an introduction to a wide range of methods used to analyze epidemiologic data, with a focus on nonregression techniques. The text includes an extensive discussion of measurement issues in epidemiology, especially confounding. Maximum likelihood, Mantel-Haenszel, and weighted least squares methods are presented for the analysis of closed cohort and case-control data. Kaplan-Meier and Poisson methods are described for the analysis of censored survival data. A justification for using odds ratio methods in case-control studies is provided. Standardization of rates is discussed and the construction of ordinary, multiple decrement and cause-deleted life tables is outlined. Sample size formulas are given for a range of epidemiologic study designs. The text ends with a brief overview of logistic and Cox regression. Other highlights include: * Many worked examples based on actualdata * Discussion of exact methods * Recommendations for preferred methods * Extensive appendices and references Biostatistical Methods in Epidemiology provides an excellent introduction to the subject for students, while also serving as a comprehensive reference for epidemiologists and other health professionals. For more information, visit www.wiley.com/mathematics |

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### Contents

1 | |

2 Measurement Issues in Epidemiology | 31 |

3 Binomial Methods for Single Sample Closed Cohort Data | 77 |

4 Odds Ratio Methods for Unstratified Closed Cohort Data | 89 |

5 Odds Ratio Methods for Stratified Closed Cohort Data | 119 |

6 Risk Ratio Methods for Closed Cohort Data | 143 |

7 Risk Difference Methods for Closed Cohort Data | 151 |

8 Survival Analysis | 159 |

14 Sample Size and Power | 281 |

15 Logistic Regression and Cox Regression | 295 |

Appendix A Odds Ratio Inequality | 307 |

Appendix B Maximum Likelihood Theory | 311 |

Appendix C Hypergeometric and Conditional Poisson Distributions | 325 |

Appendix D Quadratic Equation for the Odds Ratio | 329 |

Appendix E Matrix Identities and Inequalities | 331 |

Appendix F Survival Analysis and Life Tables | 339 |

9 KaplanMeier and Actuarial Methods for Censored Survival Data | 171 |

10 Poisson Methods for Censored Survival Data | 193 |

11 Odds Ratio Methods for CaseControl Data | 229 |

12 Standardized Rates and AgePeriodCohort Analysis | 249 |

13 Life Tables | 263 |

Appendix G Confounding in Open Cohort and CaseControl Studies | 343 |

Appendix H Odds Ratio Estimate in a Matched CaseControl Study | 353 |

359 | |

377 | |

### Common terms and phrases

ˆθ ˆπ age group approach asymptotic unconditional binomial distribution breast cancer Cancer Stage case-control study censored survival data Chapter closed cohort study conditional confidence interval consider crude death rates deﬁned denote distribution with parameters estimate of var(log example expected counts exponential exposure category FIGURE fitted counts follow-up follows Greenland hazard function hazard ratio Kaplan–Meier survival curves likelihood ratio tests linear trend log-odds logistic regression matched-pairs maximum likelihood equations measure of effect mortality notation number of deaths Observed Counts odds ratio odds ratio estimates odds ratio methods open cohort study ordinary life table p-value Poisson distribution probability function random variable Receptor level low Receptor Level–Breast Cancer referred risk difference risk factor risk ratio Section simple random sample stage Statistical strata stratified survival analysis survival function test for linear test of association test of homogeneity unexposed cohort variance X2mh

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Page 373 - University Group Diabetes Program: A study of the effects of hypoglycemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult -onset diabetes: I. Design, methods and baseline results, Diabetes 19 (suppl. 2):747-783, 1970; II. Mortality results, Diabetes 19 (suppl. 2): 789-830, 1970. University Group Diabetes Program: Effects of hypoglycemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult-onset diabetes.