Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links
Enslaved peoples were brought to the Americas from many places in Africa, but a large majority came from relatively few ethnic groups. Drawing on a wide range of materials in four languages as well as on her lifetime study of slave groups in the New World, Gwendolyn Midlo Hall explores the persistence of African ethnic identities among the enslaved over four hundred years of the Atlantic slave trade.
Hall traces the linguistic, economic, and cultural ties shared by large numbers of enslaved Africans, showing that despite the fragmentation of the diaspora many ethnic groups retained enough cohesion to communicate and to transmit elements of their shared culture. Hall concludes that recognition of the survival and persistence of African ethnic identities can fundamentally reshape how people think about the emergence of identities among enslaved Africans and their descendants in the Americas, about the ways shared identity gave rise to resistance movements, and about the elements of common African ethnic traditions that influenced regional creole cultures throughout the Americas.
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1 Gold God Race and Slaves
Coasts Ports Regionsand Ethnicities
3 The Clustering of African Ethnicities in the Americas
4 Greater SenegambiaUpper Guinea
Ivory Coast Gold Coast Slave CoastBight of Benin
The Bight of Biafra
West Central Africa and Mozambique
Afri African coasts African slaves Africans arriving Africans brought Akan Almoravids American documents Angola Atlantic slave trade Bamana Bambara Bight of Benin Bight of Biafra Brazil Brazilian British Cabildo Calabar Calculated from Hall Caribbean clustered coastal origins colonies Creole creolization Cuba cultures Dahomey Domingue Dutch eighteenth century Elmina Eltis enslaved Africans esclavos European exported French Gbe language gender Gold Coast Greater Senegambia historians Ibibio identified Igbo Inikori Islands kingdom of Kongo language group speakers large numbers listed Loango Coast Louisiana documents Louisiana Slave Database Lower Guinea Luanda mainly major male Mandingo Mozambique nation nineteenth century number of Africans Number Percentage patterns percent population ports Portugal Portuguese River runaway slaves Sandoval scholars Senegal Sierra Leone Slave Coast slave trade began Slave Trade Database slave trade voyages slavery sold Spain Spanish America studies throughout the Americas Tomé transatlantic slave trade Upper Guinea warfare West Central Africa Windward Coast Wolof Yoruba