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offering a manifest affront to God himself, and obstructing the salvation of men.” To the usual objection, that the Sacred Books contain mysteries which ought not to be divulged to all persons, he replies, “ that the mysteries of the true religion ought to be seen and understood by all mankind, because they are light and truth, and since they are ordained for the salvation of all, the first step towards obtaining it, necessarily, is to know them.” It is, perhaps, of one of these editions that Dr. Geddes speaks, but of which he gives a wrong date, when he says, “That which was printed in 1516, was so totally destroyed, that hardly a copy of it is to be found;" there being no version of that period. 25
A translation of the New Testament into Spanish had been previously made from the Greek, and accompanied with notes, by John PHILADELPHUS, or PEREZ, and printed at Venice, 1556, 8vo. Le Long considers this as being merely a corrected edition of Enzinas's version. Perez likewise published, in 1557, in Svo. a Spanish version of the Psalms, from the Hebrew, dedicated to Mary of Austria, queen of Hungary, Bohemia, &c. JOHN VALDESIUS, a Spaniard, secretary to the king of Naples, also translated St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, which was published by John Perez, in 1556, at Venice, in 8vo. and the Index Librorum Prohibitorum attributes to the same learned lawyer, a translation of St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians. All that is known more of John Perez, the author of some, and the publisher of others of these translations, is, that he was a Spaniard, the author of a Catechism, and of a Summary of Christian Doctrine, both of them inserted in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.26
(25) Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, III. pp, 449—458.
Simon's Crit. Hist. of Versions of N. T. pt. ii. ch. xli. pp. 350, 357,
Le Long, I. p. 363, Paris, 1723. Geddes's Prospectus, p, 108. (26) Le Long, I. p. 364.
Nic. Antonio, Biblioth. Script, Hispan. I. p. 580.
, In 1543, FERDINAND JARAVA, or as he is called by Antonio, JoanneS DE JARAVA, a celebrated Spanish physician, and the translator of several of Cicero's works, published a translation of the VII. PENITENTIAL PSALMS, the Songs of Degrees, some chapters of Job, and the LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH; printed at Antwerp, in 8vo. SEBASTIAN GRYPHIUS, a learned printer, of Lyons, published, in 1550, anonymous Spanish translations of the Psalms, PROVERBS, and the Book of JESUS THE SON OF SIRACH, of all them in 8vo. In 1555, Joannes Steelsius, of Antwerp, published a Spanish translation of the Psalms, from the Latin, by Snous GOUDANUS, with a Paraphrase by the translator. In 1563, Jerome de Marnef published a PortugUESE translation of the Psalms, contained in the Offices of the Blessed Virgin, and of the Dead, with the VII. PENITENTIAL PSALMs, and the Passion of our Lord, Paris, 8vo. A Spanish version of JOB, of several Psalms, and of the SonG OF SOLOMON, was made towards the end of this century, by LOUIS DE Leon, (Aloysius Legionensis,) born at Granada, an Augustinian friar, and interpreter of Scripture in the university of Salamanca. His translation of the “Song of Solomon” having been shown to one of his most intimate friends, who betrayed him, occasioned his imprisonment for five years, “in the dark and inaccessible dungeons of the inquisition," during which he manifested the most heroic spirit, and the greatest magnanimity of mind. After his release, he was reinstated in the theological chair of the university, and restored to all his other dignities. His translation of “Job,” of which Dr. Geddes speaks in the highest terms, remained in MS. till 1779, when it was printed at Madrid, with all necessary privileges, together with his learned commentary, and another poetical version of great excellence. His commentary on the “Song of Solomon," in Latin, was printed at Venice, in 1604, 8vo. There is a tolerable Spanish
translation of Pindar, by the same author; he also wrote a learned treatise in Latin, entitled, “ De utriusque Agni typici et veri, immolationis legitimo tempore,” of which F. Daniel gave a French translation, with reflections, 1695, 12mo. Louis de Leon died at Salamanca, vicar provincial, and general of his order, in 1591, aged 64. To these versions may be added a second edition of the SPANISH translation of the New TESTAMENT, by Cassiodorus de Reyna, published in 1596, 12mo. by Richard del Campo, revised by Cyprian de Valera.97*
The famous SPANISH POLYGLOTT, called also the Antwerp Polyglott, from the place where it was printed, and
(27) Le Long, pp. 363, 364. Paris, 1723.
Geddes' Prospectus, p. 87.
Paris, 1812, 8vo. * In addition to what has been said, in a former part of this work, relative to the editions of the fifteenth century, the following list of Biblical publications, taken from the rare and valuable work of CABALLERO, will assist the reader in forming bis judgment of the state of Sacred literature in Spain and Portugal, during the period that it embraces. Biblia Sacra, sermone Valentino reddita interprete Bonifacio Ferrer.
Valentiæ, 1478, fol. Epistolas, e Evangelhos que se cantaon no discorso do anno. Ex Lat.
a Gundisalvo Garzia de S. Maria, 1479, fol. Expositio brevis, et utilis super toto Psalterio : auctore Johanne de Tur.
recremata. Burgis Pictav, 1480. Cæsaraugustæ, 1482, fol. Expositio 150 Psalmorum David: auctore Jacobo Perez de Valentia.
Valentiæ, 1484, fol. Epistolas, et Evangelios traducidos en (vel de) lengua Portugueza, por
Gonzalo Garcia de S. Maria. Cæsaraugustæ, 1485, fol. Expositio in Cantica Canticorum : auctore Jacobo Perez de Valentia,
Valentiæ, 1486, fol. 1494, fol. Expositio Canticorum, quæ in diebus ferialibus cantantur ad laudes :
&c. &c. Ejusdem Jacobi. Valentiæ, 1486, fol. Commentarius in Legem; auctore R. Mosche Nachmanide: Ulyssipone,
1489. Pentateuchus Hebraicus absque puoctis, &c. 1490. Los Evangelios desde Aviento hasta la Dominica in Passione ; traducidos
en lengua Castellana por Fr. Juan Lopez : Zamoræ, 1490, fol. Biblia Latina: Hispali, 1491, fol Pentateuchus Hebraicus ; Ulyssipone, 1491.
the Royal Polyglott, from being published under the patronage of the king of Spain, was executed at different periods, between 1568 and 1573, by Christopher Plantin, of Antwerp, under the superintendence of Arias MonTANUS, in 8 vols. fol. The first four volumes contain the Old Testament, and Apocryphal Books ; and the succeeding one, the New Testament. In this volume, the Syriac is twice printed; in the first column, with Syriac letters and points ; and secondly, under the other texts, with Hebrew letters and Chaldee points. The latter being done with the view of rendering the New Testament intelligible to the Jews, and of converting them to the Christian religion, as we are informed by Guido Fabricius Boderianus, who wrote for that purpose the Syriac text, in Hebrew letters.
This Polyglott, which was printed in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, includes, Chaldee, beside the Isaias, ac Jeremias, cum Comment, R. David Kimchi. Ulyssi pone,
1492, fol. Proverbia cum Targum, &c. Ulyssipone, 1492, fol. Postillæ in Epistolas, et Evangelia totius anui. Hispali, 1492. Biblia Parva, opus Petri Paschasii super Libris sacris; Barcinone, 1492, Istoria de la Passio de Nostre Senyor Jesu Christ; Valentiæ, 1493. Prophetæ Priores, seu Josue, Judices, Libri Samuelis, ac Regum, cum
Chald. Paraph. Leiriæ, 1494, fol,
Latino Ludolphi de Saxonia : Ulyssopone, 1495.
- Granatæ, 1496, fol. Expositio Canticorum, &c. Valentiæ, 1496, fol. Isaias, et Jeremias, Hebraice cum Comment. Kimchi. Ulyssipone,
1497, fol. Vita Christi, de la Rev. Abadessa de la Trinitat. Valentiæ, 1497, fol,
—; in Cænobio Montis Serrati, 1499, vel 1500. Psalterium ; cum Litaniis Sanctorum, anno incerto. Biblia Hebraica; in fol. an. incert. Evangelia, &c. an. incert. La Exposicion del Pater-noster, por el Obispo de Salamanca (sc. Dida.
cus Deza). an incert. (Raymund Diosdad Caballero, De Prima Typographiæ Hispanica ætate specimen. Romæ, 1793, 4to. passim.)
whole of the Complutensian edition, a Chaldee Paraphrase on part of the Old Testament, which Cardinal Ximenes had deposited in the theological library, at Complutum. The New Testament has the Syriac version, and the Latin translation of Santes Pagninus, as reformed by Arias Montanus. The first volume of the Apparatus, (or sixth of the work,) contains, 1. An Hebrew Grammar, and an Epitome of the “Thesaurus" of Santes Pagninus, by Franciscus Raphalengius. 2. A Syriac Grammar, and a Syro-Chaldaic Lexicon, by Guidonus Fabricius Boderianus ; 3. A Syriac Grammar and Lexicon, entitled “Peculium Syrorum," by And. Masius ; and lastly, 4. A Greek Grammar and Lexicon, compiled by the industry, and at the expense of Christ. Plantin. The second volume of the Apparatus, (or seventh of the work,) is occupied with the Hebrew and Greek texts, in a smaller character than those in the former volumes, with an interlineary Latin version. The third volume of the Apparatus, (or last volume of the work,) includes various Dissertations on the geography, chronology, and architecture of the Scriptures, and on the weights, measures, vestments, &c. mentioned in them, by Arias Montanus; an Index Biblicus, or brief Concordance by J. Harlem ; an Index of the Hebrew, Greek, Chaldee, and Latin proper names; the Various Readings of the Hebrew, Chaldee, and Latin Scriptures, by J. Harlem, W. Canterus, &c., with other similar tables. The honour of projecting this Polyglott, is said to belong to Christopher Plantin, who finding himself inadequate to support the expenses of such an immense undertaking, presented a petition to Philip II. king of Spain, who promised to advance the money necessary for the execution of the work, and to send learned men from Spain to undertake the arrangement and direction of the impression. For this success, Plantin was considerably indebted to Cardinal Spinosa, counsellor of Philip II. and general