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tians, and such other punishment, as the ordinary should judge necessary to compel them to attend : and if any Christian should prevent them from attending, or induce them to absent themselves, be should thereby incur excommunication, and be subjected to such other punishment as the case deserved."
In SPAIN, the Jews were more successful in their attempts to obtain a vernacular translation of the books of the Old Testament. Protected by the duke of Ferrara, they published a SPANISH translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. The title which this very rare and celebrated edition bears, is, Biblia en lengua espanola traduzida palabra por palabra dela verdad hebrayca por muy excellentes letrados vista y examinada por el Officio dela Inquisicion. Cum privilegio del Yllustrissimo senor Duque de Ferrara. The title-page is ornamented with a wood-cut, or vignette, representing a ship wrecked by a storm, emblematical of the persecuted state of the Jews. The text of this edition is printed in the Gothic character, whereas, all subsequent editions were printed with the round, or Roman letter. The translation is extremely literal, and formed from the ancient Spanish, seldom used but in the synagogue service. The translator professes to have adhered, as much as possible, to the Latin version and dictionary of Pagninus, but seems rather to have adopted the old translations, or glosses of the Spanish Jews; he has also marked with an asterisk, or star, the words which in the Hebrew are equivocal, or capable of different senses. The copies of this translation are divided into two classes, the one being appropriated to the use of the Jews, the other being accommodated to the purposes of the Christians. Those designed for the Jews are dedicated to Donna GRACIA Naçi a Jewish Portuguese lady, duchess of Naxia, or Naxus; and in the following colophon, are said to have been completed by (21) Cherubini Mag. Bull, II. pp. 477, 478.
ABRAHAM USQUE, and printed at Ferrara, in 1553, at the expense of Yom ToB ATHIAS: A gloria y loor de nuestro senor se acabo la presente Biblia en lengua espanola traduzida dela verdadera Origen hebrayca por muy excel. lentes letrados, con yndustria y deligencia de Abraam Usque Portugues; estampada en Ferrara a costa y despesa de Jom Tob Athias hijo de Levi Athias espanol; en 14. de Adar de 5313. The copies designed for the Christians are dedicated to Don HERCULES D' Este II., fourth duke of Ferrara. The conclusion of the colophon differs from the other, by stating these copies to have been completed by DUARTE Pinel, and printed at Ferrara, at the expense of JEROM DE VARGAS, March 1st, 1553: Con yndustria y deligencia de Duarte Pinel Portugues ; estampada en Ferra a costa y despesa de Jeronimo de Vargas espanol ; en primero de Marco de 1553. The latter copies have also some corrections and alterations in the translation, rendering it more conformable to the views of the Christians. This edition is accompanied with certain tables and summaries, which, however, are only found in some of the copies. Abraham Usque, and Duarte Pinel, the two persons who appear to have been engaged in the translation, or to have had the direction of it, probably employed other learned men to assist them in the important undertaking, as seems intimated by the terms, por muy excellentes letrados, inserted in the title. De Rossi adds, that some copies were printed upon blue paper. (cærulea charta.)
ABRAHAM USQUE, sometimes erroneously called Oski, or Uski, was of a reputable Jewish family, who fled from Portugal to Ferrara, during the severe persecutions
(22) B, De Rossi, De Typographia Hebræo-Ferrariensi Comment. His.
tor, cap vi, pp. 86–123. Erlangæ, 1781, 8vo. Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, III. pp. 446-452. Le Long, I. pp. 364366, Paris, 1723, Simon, Hist. Crit. du Vet. Testament, liv, ii. ch. xix: pp. 347–349.
which raged against the Jews in that kingdom. He was educated in the principles of the Talmud by his parents; and afterwards became a celebrated printer in the city where he resided, and printed many works, not only in Hebrew, but also in Spanish and Portuguese. There were two other celebrated characters at Ferrara, of the same family, Samuel, and Solomon, contemporary with Abraham. Samuel was the author of Consolacam as Tribulacoens de Ysrael, in which he endeavours to console the Jews, under their various sufferings, and threatens the vengeance of God against their persecutors; and particularly writes against Vincent Ferrer, and the authors of the edicts of the inquisition in Spain and Portugal. Solomon edited a Spanish translation of Petrarch's Sonnets, the Biblical tragedy of Esther, and other works; he was probably the same who established a printing-office at Constantinople; and by whom the book of Rath was printed, in Hebrew, with the commentary of R. Solomon Alkabetz, in 1561, 4to. Beside the Spanish version of the Old Testament, printed in 1553 Abraham published in the same year, a separate edition of the Psalms, in 16mo.; and in 1555, in 4to. the PenTATEUCH, Megilloth, or Song of Solomon, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, and Esther ; and HAP TAROTH, or Sections of the Prophets read in the synugogues during the year. He was also the author of Orden de los Ritos de la Fiesta del ano Nuevo, y Erpiacion. Ferrara, 1554, 4to. The time of this learned printer's death is not known.23
DUARTE PINEL, or PINHEL, was a native of Portugal, eminent for his knowledge of the Latin and Hebrew languages, and his skill in chronology. He was the author of a “Compendium of Latin Grammar;" (Latince Grammatices Compendium ;)and of a treatise De Calendis.
(23) D. Barbosa Machado, Biblioth. Lusitan. I. p. 4. Lisboa Occident,
1741, fol. De Rossi, De Typog. Hebræo-Ferrar. pp. XXIX. 8. 9. 52. 81,
Ulyssipone apud Lodovicum Rhoterigium, 1543.94
About sixteen years after the publication of the “Bible of Ferrara,” by the Jews, an anonymous Spanish version, of both the Old and New TESTAMENTS, was published without the printer's name, or that of the place where printed, with the title, “La Biblia, que es, los Sacros Libros del Vieio y Nueuo Testamento. Transladada en Espannol. M.D.LXIX,” in 4to. After the title, follow the 3rd and 4th rules of the Index, according to the decree of the council of Trent, in Latin and Spanish ; these are succeeded by a Latin preface, addressed to the “Kings, Electors, Princes, Counts, Barons, Knights, and Magistrates of all Europe;" and an “advertisement to the reader,” in Spanish, in which the translator adduces his reasons for his undertaking. The “ Various Readings" of the Hebrew and Greek are inserted in the text, inclosed within crotchets ; and brief scholiæ, or explanatory terms, are placed in the margin. The printer's device on the title-page represents a large tree, in which an opening in the trunk serves for a hive of bees, and a bear is seen endeavouring to reach the opening, in order to suck the honey, which distils from the hive. A hammer, supposed to have been used in forming the opening in the tree, is suspended on a branch. The whole is surrounded with flowers, and amongst them a book lying open, with the name of 1717 on it. From the bear represented in this device, some bave erroneously supposed the work to have been printed at Berne, which has a bear in the city arms.
The most certain account we have of the translator and printer of this version, is from inscriptions written by the author, in copies presented by him to the libraries of Basle, and Francfort on the Main. In the copy presented to the library of Basle he has written as follows: “Cassiodorus Reinius, Hispanus, Hispalensis, incly(24) D. B. Machado, Biblioth. Lusitan. I. p, 742.
ta hujus academiæ alumnus, hujus sacrorum librorum versionis Hispanicæ auctor, quam per integrum decennium elaboravit, et auxilio pientissimorum ministrorum hujus ecclesiæ Basileensis ex decreto prudentissimi senatus typis ab honesto viro Thoma Guarino cive Basiliensi excusam demum emisit in lucem, in perpetuum gratitudinis, et observantiæ monuinentum hunc librum inclytæ huic academiæ supplex dicabat. A. 1570. mense Junio.” And in that presented to the library of Francfort on the Main, he thus gratefully acknowledges the kindness shown to him by the senate : “CASSIODORUS Reinius, Hispanus versionis hujus hispanica lingua Sacrorum Librorum Autor. Optimi senatus beneficio municeps Francfortanus. In cujus beneficii, atque adeo, gratitudinis ipsius memoriam sempiternam Bibliothecæ publicæ, hunc librum dicat. Calendis Januariis, 1573." From these inscriptions, we learn, that the author of this version was CassioDORUS DB Reyna, a Spaniard, born at Seville, who had studied at the university of Basle, where he was assisted in this translation by several pious ministers of that city, and where the work was printed, by a worthy printer, whose name was Thomas GUARIN. The senate of Francfort conferred on him the privileges of a citizen of their city. Nic. Antonio, in his Bibliotheca Hispanica, gives no account of him, but it is probable he had embraced the principles of the Reformation, though some expressions in his preface, and the prefixing of the Rules of the Index, to his version, have the appearance of attachment to the church of Rome. Cassiodorus was engaged ten years in the translation; and the number of copies printed was 2600. In the preface, which he has signed with C. R. the initials of his name, he defends vernacular translations of the Bible, and maintains, “ that the Holy Scriptures having been published for the instruction of all persons, both learned and ignorant, the reading thereof cannot be prohibited without