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Catholics and those who had embraced the reformed religion. Brucioli's translation was reprinted, in 1548, 8vo. 1551, 4to. and again in 1579, 4to. Malermi's version was also reprinted at Venice, by Bendoni, in 1553, and 1558, fol. ; by And. Muschius, in 1566, 4to. and lastly by Jerom Scot, with the Vulgate version, in 1567, fol. This edition is said to be “purged from all mistakes, and published with the permission of the congregation of the inquisition.” Le Long also mentions several editions of the Psalms, PROVERBS, &c.14
The persecution which raged against those who embraced the doctrines of the Reformation, obliged many natives of the Italian states to flee for safety to Geneva, where they established a church, in 1551. Maximilian de Martinengo, a near kinsman of the counts of Martinengo, an illustrious family of Italy, was their first pastor. It was natural for him to wish to place the Bible in the hands of his flock, the translation of Brucioli, the only one they possessed, needing revision, to render it more intelligible and conformable to the original. Massimo THEOPHILO DA FIORENZA, an Italian, who had embraced the doctrines of Calvin, bad corrected the New TestaMENT, and published it at Lyons, in 1551, in 16mo. and Jean de Tournes reprinted it, in 1556, in 16mo. The Reformed of Geneva, agreeably to the wish of their minister, published a new edition of it in 1555, in 8vo. with the French version in a parallel column. William Rouille followed the example, and, in 1558, published a NEW Testament, at Lyons, in 16mo. in which one column contained the Latin version of Erasmus, and the other, an Italian translation according to that version. To his edition the same Summaries of the chapters were prefixed as in that of 1555; and in which the doctrines of the reformers were explicitly stated; thus, the summary of (14) Le Long, Biblioth. Sacr. I. pp, 355-358. Paris, 1723.
Walchii Biblioth. Theolog. IV. p. 128. Vol. III.
the 3rd chap. of the Epistle to the Romans states, that the apostle proves that the Jews and Gentiles are alike sinners ; shews the respective offices of the law, and faith; and concludes that all our righteousness is of divine grace, by faith in the blood of Christ, and not by the law, nor by works. The summary of the 4th chap. of the same epistle ends by saying, that the conclusion of the apostle in it is, “that the faith alone, of Christ, justifies.” Nicholas des Gallars collated again this translation with the Greek; Theodore Beza revised it; and Fabius Tudeschi printed it in 1560, in 8vo. The Italian Protestants of Geneva, desirous also of a new edition of the whole Bible, undertook the correction and revision of Brucioli's version of the OLD TESTAMENT; and, after spending three years in rendering it more perspicuous, and conformable to the Hebrew, added to it the New TesTAMENT, of Gallars and Beza, and published the whole in 1562, in fol. (or according to Le Long and Walch, in 4to.) from the press of Francisco Durone, of Geneva."
The Jews, likewise, who were natives of Italy, were desirous of possessing an Italian translation of the Old Testament, and especially those of them, who, from various reasons of commerce or conscience, were resident in the East, or other countries distant from Italy. R. David de Pomis, a Jewish physician of Spoleto, author of an Hebrew, Latin, and Italian Lexicon, entitled Tzemach David, Venice, 1587, fol. translated Ecclesiastes; which was printed with notes, and the original Hebrew, at Venice, by Jordan Ziletti, in 1578, 8vo. with the title, “Discorso intorno l'humana miseria, et sopra al modo di fugirla, &c.” In the preface to this lexicon, he says, he had also written expositions of the books of Job and Daniel, similar to those on “Ecclesiastes,” which renders it probable that he had also translated ihose books. An Italian translation of the PROVERBS OF SOLOMON, in (15) Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse, IV. pp. 57~-59.
Hebrew characters, accompanied an edition of the Hebrew text, printed at Venice, without date. LEO OF MoDENA, whose true name was R. JUDA ARieh, meditated an entire version of the Old Testament, but was prevented by the injunction of the inquisition. Frustrated in this design, he turned his attention to the formation of an Hebrew and Italian lexicon of the Bible, which was published at Venice, with the title, Golath Jehuda, in 1612, 4to. and at Padua, in 1640. In the preface to this work, he thus speaks of his intended version of the Old Testament; “The Spanish, Greek, German, and other Jews, who reside in the East, have each of them, except the Italian, the Bible in their own' tongue; on this account, I was induced to think of publishing a new translation, &c.” He has, however, afforded all the help he could, by his lexicon, in which he has explained, what he regards as the most difficult passages, and given them in pure Italian. This rabbi was born at Modena, about 1574, and was for a considerable time chief of the synagogue, and esteemed a good poet both in Hebrew and Italian. He was the author of a work on the Passover, illustrated with plates, written in Italian, and printed in Hebrew characters, Venice, 1609, fol.; and also of a valuable work on the ceremonies and customs of the Jews, entitled Istoria de Riti Hebraïci vita et Osservanze de gli Hebreï di questi Tempi ; the best edition of which is said to be that of Venice, 1638, Svo. It has been translated into Dutch, Latin, French, and English. The French translation is by Richard Simon, who added supplements, relating to the sects of the Karaites and Samaritans. An English translation, a copy of which is before me, is by Edmund Chilmead, master of arts, and chaplain of Christ church, Oxon. Lond. 1650, 16mo. Leo died at Venice, in 1654.17
(16) Le Long, I. p. 360 ; and II. pp. 1186, 1187; Paris, 1723, (17) Le Long, II. p. 806, Paris, 1723. Chalmers' Dict, XX. p. 181.
The interdiction of the Bible in the vernacular tongue was not the only instance of persecution which the Jews experienced from the pontifical authority. Julius III., in 1554, had issued a bull, dated May 29th, addressed to the “patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops of the Roman see, against all Jews, retaining the Talmudical, or other books, in which the name of Jesus was blasphemously or ignominiously named; and directing that after four months from the date of the bull, the synagogues and houses of the Jews should be searched, and if any such books were found, those who had them in possession should be punished, and their goods confiscated; and if contumacious, or otherwise deserving of it, be put to death."18 Pius IV., who was raised to the papal chair in 1555, issued another inhibitory bull against Jewish books, in which he distinguished those which only explained the Jewish religion, and permitted them to be retained, but commanded the others to be burnt. Clement VIII., in 1593, imitated his predecessors, by issuing a bull, by which all Talmudical and other Jewish writings which contained any thing derogatory to the Scriptures, the doctrines of the church, or the Romish hierarchy, were “forbidden to be translated, printed, edited, or transcribed; or under any pretence to be read, or heard, possessed, bought, or sold, given, or bartered, under pain of punishment, at the discretion of the diocesan, and confiscation of goods, if Jews ; or of the great excommunication, if Christians; all former permissions being revoked. The books to be delivered up within ten days, if in Rome; or if beyond the limits of the city, within two months from the 28th of February, the date of the bull.” Paulus Piasecius, bishop of Przmysl, in his Chronic. Gestorum in Europa singularium, f. 112,
(18) Cherubini Magnum Bullarium, I. p. 804. Lugduni, in 1673,
folio. (19) Basnage's History of the Jews, B. vii. p. 723.
says, that in consequence of this mandate, “nearly 10,000 copies of this kind of books were collected, and burnt, in the city of Bergamo only."20
Instead of permitting the Jews the free use of the Scriptures in the vernacular tongue, the church of Rome adopted measures of constraint, and attempted their conversion to Christianity, by means, which only served to increase their repugnance to the religion of Christ. Gregory XIII. by a bull, dated September 1st, 1584, ordered, “that wherever a sufficient number of Jews resided to constitute a synagogue, all of them, of both sexes, who were above twelve years of age, should assemble together once in the week, in some appointed place, but not where divine service was usually performed, when a master in divinity, or some other proper person, who should receive a suitable stipend, should deliver a sermon or lecture, if possible, in the Hebrew tongue, to prove from the writings of the Old Testament, and especially from the lessons read in the synagogues, the truth of the Christian faith; the fulfilment of the prophecies in the person, actions, miracles, and death of Christ; the abolition of the law; the universal spread of the Gospel, and the spiritual reign of the Messiah ; the vanity of expecting a restoration to the city and temple of Jerusalem ; and the corruption of the holy Scriptures by rabbinical fables and falsehoods. That in these sermons, the preacher should treat the subjects he discussed, with prudence, modesty, and charity.” It was also further determined by the same mandate, “ that in order to prevent unnecessary pleas of infirmity, or lawful detention, at least one third of all the Jews resident, or occasionally present, in the city or town where the sermon was preached, should regularly attend on that occasion, under pain of being forbidden all commerce with Chris
(20) Cherubini Magnum Bullar. III. pp, 24, 25.
Schelhornji Amanit. Litteraria, VII, p 87. nate.