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of Torres, according to others, employed the great
part of his life in searching the libraries of Italy, for the unpublished works of the Greek Fathers, in order to give them to the public, accompanied with a translation. After having assisted at the council of Trent, he entered the society of the Jesuits, at an ad
in 1566, and changed his name from Torrensis, to Turrianus. After he became a Jesuit, he retired to Ingolstadt, in Germany, and there continued his lite. rary labours, until he was recalled to Rome, where he died, November 21st, 1584, aged nearly 80. His works are numerous, but not greatly esteemed, on account of the want which they discover, of critical taste and judgment.
Petrus CIAconius, or Chaco, was born at Toledo, in Spain, in 1525. Being naturally of a studious disposition, he applied to learning with indefatigable diligence, and, notwithstanding the obstacles presented by the indigence of his parents, rose to eminence as a
character, and was regarded as one of the first critics of the age. Whilst at the university of Salamanca, he distinguished himself by bis progress in the studies of theology and philosophy, his knowledge of the mathematics, and his acquaintance with the Greek tongue. Under the pontificate of Gregory XIII. he was chargeil with the care of revising and correcting the Bible, the decretals of Gratian, and the works of the Fathers, and other ancient authors printed at the Vatican press.
He was also employed by the same pontiff, in reforming thi calendar, along with Clavius, and others. As a rewarı for his learned labours, he was made a canon of Seville He died at Rome, in 1581, at the age of 56. His pro (6) Dupin, Nouvelle Bibliotheque des Auteurs Ecclesiastiques, XVI.
pp. 131, 132. Nic. Antonio, Biblioth. Hisp. I. pp. 371, 372. Monumenta Litteraria, ex Hist. Thuæni. p. 239. Lond. 1640, 4to.
found erudition was only equalled by his modesty and humility. He was fond of retirement, and used to call his books, his "faithful companions." He wrote learned notes upon Arnobius, Tertullian, Cassian, Cæsar, Pliny, Terence, &c. He was likewise the author of some separate little treatises, one particularly, De Triclinio Romano, which, with those of Fulvius Ursinus, and Mercurialis, upon the same subject, was published at Amsterdam, 1689, in 12mo. with figures, to illustrate the descriptions.?
JOANNES MALDONATUS, a Spaniard of noble family, was born at Fuente del Maestro, a village in the province of Estremadura, in 1534. He received his education at the university of Salamanca, under Dominic Soto, and Francis Tolet; and afterwards taught philosophy, divinity, and the Greek language, in that seminary. Having entered into the society of the Jesuits, he was called to Rome, where he taught theology in their college, and assumed the habit of the order. When the college of the Jesuits was established in Paris, in 1563, he was sent thither by his superiors to teach philosophy, and there became the strenuous antagonist of Calvin. His lectures were so popular, that he was frequently obliged, from the crowds which attended, to deliver them in the court, or the street. · In 1570, he was sent with nine other Jesuits to Poitiers, where he read lectures in Latin, and preached in French. Afterwards he returned to Paris ; but having been accused of heresy, and of procuring a fraudulent will in favour of his order, tbough honourably acquitted, he retired to Bourges, where the Jesuits had a college, and remained there about a year and a half. He was then called to Rome, to assist in the publication of the Septuagint,” and after finishing bis Commentary upon the Gospels, in 1582, he was, early in 1583, found dead in
(7) Dupin, Nouv. Biblioth. des Auteurs Ecclesiastiques, XVI. p. 123,
Chalmers' Gen, Biog, Dict. IX. p. 345.
his bed. His most celebrated work is the before-mentioned “ Commentary,” which has received high encomiums from both Papists and Protestants, as a judicious and excellent exposition.”
Fulvius URSINUS was the illegitimate son of a commander of the order of Malta, of the Ursin family, and was born at Rome, December 2nd, 1529. His mother and himself were turned out of doors by the unnatural father, and reduced to great poverty ; but the early appearance of talents recommended Fulvius to the notice of Gentilio Delfini, a canon of Lateran, who took him under his protection, instructed him in classical literature, and at length obtained considerable preferinent for him in the church of St. John of Lateran, He was afterwards taken into the service of the Cardinals Ranutius, and Alexander Farnese, who rewarded him liberally, and thus afforded him an opportunity of collecting a great number of books and ancient MSS. and employing them for the benefit of literature. He corresponded with the most eminent literary characters of Italy; and contributed much valuable assistance to the authors of that period.
His skill in discovering the antiquity and value of MSS. was uncommon, and seems to have been considered by him as an important secret. He died at Rome, January 18th, 1600, at the age of 70. In his will, which is appended to his life by Castalio, Rome, 1657, 8vo. he bequeaths two thousand crowns to Delfini, bishop of Camerino, probably a near relation of his early patron. He was the author of several learned works, as De Familiis Romanis ; an appendix to Ciaconius's treatise, De Triclinio ; Notes on most of the Roman historians,
He also caused engravings to be made of a large collection of statues, busts, &c. and published them ander the title of Imagines et Elogia Virorum illustrium, et (8) Alegambe, Biblioth. Scriptor. Soc. Jesu. pp, 255—257.
Chalmers' Gen. Biog. Dict. XXI. pp. 176-178.
eruditorum, &c. Mr. Pinkerton, however, says, that this work is not to be depended upon, and prefers that of Canini, as better, although far from perfect."
Paulus Comitolus, was a Jesuit, born at Perusium, in Italy, where he died February 18th, 1626, aged 80. He was accounted one of the best casuists of his order. He left several works, regarded as valuable, as Consilia Moralia, &c.10
Joannes LIVINEJUS or Livineius, was a native of Dendermond, in the Austrian Netherlands. Levinus Torrentius, bishop of Antwerp, his maternal uncle, inspired him with a taste for Sacred literature. Visiting Rome, he was employed by Cardinals Sirlet and Caraffa to translate and publish the works of the Greek Fathers. He was afterwards canon and theologal of Antwerp. He died in 1599, aged 50. He was a good critic, but his style was harsh. He laboured with WILLIAM CanteRUS, an eminent linguist and philologer, of Utrecht, in examining and collating several MSS. of the LXX. Their observations were incorporated in “ Plantin's Polyglott.” He was likewise the author of various translations from the Fathers."
Sixtus V. who is said to have been “born for great things," did not, if we may depend upon his biographer, confine his Biblical labours to the publication of the Vulgate and Septuagint, but added to them an edition of the Bible in the vernacular Italian. The following curious account of it, and of the event of its publication, is given by Gregorio Leti, an Italian, of a considerable family, who flourished in the seventeenth century, in his Life of Pope Sixtus V. written originally in Italian, and translated into English by Ellis Farneworth, M. A.
“He (Sixtus V.) had caused the Vulgate Latin edition of the Bible to be published the last year, which occa(9) Chalmers' Gen. Biog, Dict. XXX. pp. 158, 159, (10) Nouv. Dict. Hist. III. p. 31,
Dict. Hist. V. p. 295.
sioned a good deal of clamour in the world; but nothing like what there was this year, upon his printing an ITALIAN version of it. This set all the Roman Catholic part of Christendom in an uproar. Count Olivarez," (ambassador from the king of Spain,) " and some of the cardinals, ventured to expostulate with him pretty freely upon it, and said, 'It was a scandalous as well as a dangerous thing, and bordered very nearly upon heresy.' But he treated them with contempt, and only said, “We do it for the benefit of you that don't understand Latin.' The most zealous of the cardinals wrote to the king of Spain, entreating him to interpose, and think of some remedy for this evil, as he was more interested in it than any one else, with regard to the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, and the duchy of Milan; for if the Bible should come to be read there, in the vulgar tongue, it might raise scruples and uneasinesses in the consciences of those people: as it was besides, one of the first principles of heretics, to read the Scriptures in the common tongue.”
“PHILIP, who was a famous bigot, ordered his ambassador, 'to use his endeavours with the pope, to suppress this edition, as it would give infinite offence; and said, if he did not, he should be obliged to make use of such means to prevent its being read in his kingdoms, as his zeal for true religion suggested, and the Almighty had put in his hands.' Olivarez, having received these orders, immediately demanded an audience of the pope, and represented to him with much warmth, how disagreeable this new version was to his master, and what scandal it gave to his whole court. Sixtus suffered him to harangue, with great vehemence, for above an hour, and when he was corne to the end of his career, made no answer. Upon which the count said, “Won't your holiness be pleased to let me know your thoughts upon this matter?' 'I am thinking,' said Sixtus, 'to have you thrown out of the window, to teach other