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things were made servants to men's appetites, interests, and pleasure, and the fear of sin and transgreslion, except where immediate punishment was visible, seemed to have taken wing to some other climate. Animolity, arising from the spirit of party, came to fo great a height, that friends who formerly had supported the social character, became aliens to one another; muual affection, the true bond of society, declined to an amazing degree, and rancor and malignity raged with unbounded violence. The friends of the miniftry, and of the American war, were hewing their relepiment, by declaring what they thought those in oppolition deserved, and scarcely would allow them a right to live in this world.

The Jacobites and Tories, who, a little more than thirty years ago, had been in actual rebellion against the King and the laws, were now broke loose in abu. sing all who were against the American war, with the opprobrious names of rebels. The meanest and most unjust personal abuse was published in Jacobite News-papers, managed by Papists and Tories, against men who had nothing to defend them except their own innocence. This produced a general irritation of parties, and sometimes made the opposition expose matters of fact, which otherwise would have passed in oblivion. But on some occasions the publishing of the most notorious fa&ts became dangerous, and were construed by judges and court lawyers to be libels punishable by law, when the unhappy publishers were severely fined or imprisoned for an example to others.

The papists, who had, ever fioce the passing of the Quebec. Bill, considered the ministry as their friends employed their pens and intereit in support. ing this unnatural war, and their priests began to shew an infolence unknown for many years past. This produced some reflections upon their characters and religion, which had lain dormant for a great while. It was alledged that it did not become men, who had all sworn allegiance to the Chevalier de St. George to give the epithets of rebel or traitor to men who were the truest friends of his present majesty, and the revolution fertlement. As all the popish clergy, who take orders abroad, in the English colleges, are, by the authority of the Pope, obliged to swear allegiance to the Pretender when they enter upon holy orders, it gave

them no small offence to hear this secret published over all Great Britain. Whether our ministry, actually knew this secret or not, may probably be disputed, but it is what the papists cannot deny, and what some of the first character openly confess. This was considered by the friends of the constitu. tion as treason against our King and the laws, and was animadverted upon with some warm th and zeal. The tempers of men being more and more agi- . tated by this controversy, produced many acrimonious reflections on both sides, so that frequently that decency which is even due to an enemy, was transa gressed. Those reflections which proceeded from zeal and want of temper, were imputed to malevolence and ill-nature; and the friends of the ministry, on their part, were careful to make it believed, that the arguments of the opposition proceeded from disloyalty and disaffection to government; for though they knew in their hearts, that the King had not more loyal subjects, yet because they were in opposition to their measures, they wanted every one to believe they were traitors,

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But what seemed the most unfeasible conjecture ią the heat of this disputation, was, that the opposition were the cause of protracting the war, when it was well kņown, that every supply which the ministry judged neceffary was granted according to their de. fire. The whole management was in their own hands, and they raised as many men, and as large sums of money as ever they had a mind. Had the nation been ever so unanimous, they could not have done more than was done, and provided wisdom and justice had been the principles of action, the supplies were abundantly fufficient. But the want of judgment and justice in planning and executing this urnatural war, was the sole cause of all our miscarriages, from the beginning hitherto. Those who are engaged in a party, through interest, ambition, or some other base paffion, may throw the blame of want of success in this war, on whom they please; but fuppose it had been ever so successful, no wise or good man could, in his conscience, have determined it to be just. The crimes for which the colonists have been so violently prosecuted by war, have never been proved, by the molt zealous advocates for carrying it on, deserving thereof, unless the laws of the constitution are ambu. Jatory, and are always to be determined by the will and pleafure of the ruling powers. Reason and com. mon sense will readily teach every impartial enquirer that the causes of this war, were ambition in government and a desire to extend dominion beyond the ancient statutes. Whatever may be the issue and event of this unhappy contest, posterity will conclude that the colonists have made a noble struggle for what nature and reason teach all men to regere and pursue,

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as far as they have power and ability. The wealth
and power of Britain may enable her to maintain the
conflict, and probably in the end make her victorious,
but impartial posterity, removed far from both
parties, will judge of the principles of the war, and
not determine by its success. Julius Cæfar, though
he was successful in destroying the Roman liberty, and
established the power of the emperor above the senate
and the laws, is far from being considered by poste-
rity as having done an honourable and a just thing.
It was his success that laid the foundation of slavery
in Rome, and though the government had more of
the shining tinsel of external majesty, yet it lost its an-
tient glory and strength, which was for 800 years
supported by liberty, and the virtue of its citizens.
The laws established at the glorious revolution in Bri-
cain, have for ninety years made the nation flourish
in peace and abundance; the justice and liberty im-
plied in their character, and practised by all ranks, has
made her flourish, the envy and astonishment of all
Europe: But if the depart from these glorious prin.
ciples, and suffer these statues to be violated, which
have so long upheld her peace and supported her
glory, she will soon become the scorn of the nations,
and a reproach over all the world. It will be unwise,
from a pretence of more wisdom and improvement,
to remove land marks and first principles, which have
been known in experience to have been so beneficial
and falutary to all ranks. Our sound and wholesomen
laws made at the revolution, have exalted our sove-
reign to a pitch of true glory, and the nation to dig-
nity it never knew before: Under their influence
the empire has been extended, the subjects enriched

beyond

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beyond the limits of former periods, and both the crown and the legislature arrived at a dignity unknown in former times. To lose all these advantages, and facrifice them at the shrine of dominion and defpotism, will fink us below all degrees of comparison, and make us in reality, lefs than the least of the nations. The American war, if continued, will either be the æra of liberty to them, or the æra of slavery to boch them and us: this is what all good subjects will undoubtedly deprecate and strive against, let interefted men fay what they please. This contest with Ame. rica will be a period in history, which posterity will mark with an emphasis of admiration and aftonithment; and ages to come will declare that there lived a race of men beyond the Atlantic that made a noble struggle to be free.

END OF VOLUME SECOND.

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