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cember, 1865. - Opposition to Congress. - His “White-washing Message." - Veto

of the First Freedmen's Bureau Bill. - The 22d of February Speech. — Veto of the

Civil Rights Bill. - Its Passage over the Veto. - Provisions of the Bill. - The

Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. - What it was. — Veto of the Second

Freedmen's Bureau Bill. -- Passage over the Veto. - Its Provisions. — Admission

of Tennessee. — Mr. Johnson signs the Resolution, but protests. — The Memphis

Riot. - The New Orleans Massacre. - Mr. Johnson responsible for them. - Gen-

eral Sheridan's Account of it. - The Philadelphia Convention. — Its Tears. — It

proves a Failure. – Mr. Johnson weeps. - Mr. Johnson's Speeches. – Reply to

the Philadelphia Committee. — “Congress hanging on the verge of the Govern-

ment." — " Swinging round the Circle." — Disgraceful Conduct of Mr. Johnson.

- Billingsgate in his Speeches. - Wearisome Platitudes. — The Effect they had

on the Elections of 1866...

......591

CHAPTER LXXXIII. RECONSTRUCTION.

Condition of the Republican and Democratic Parties in Congress in December, 1866.

- The District of Columbia Elective Franchise Bill passed: Its Provisions. -

Mr. Johnson vetoes it, but it is passed over the Veto. - Territorial Franchise Bill

passed. — Admission of Nebraska as a State, with the Elective Franchise Proviso.

– Difficulties in Maturing satisfactorily tbe Reconstruction Act. – The Provisions

of the House Bill. — It is materially changed in the Senate. - Further Modifica-

tion in the House Provisions of the Bill as finally passed. - Necessity for the

Tenure of Office Act: Its Provisions. - Effect of the Passage of the District of

Columbia Franchise Bill on Tennessee. - Decision of the Supreme Court of Ten-

nessee. - The First Supplementary Reconstruction Act of the Fortieth Congress.

- It is vetoed, and re-passed : Its Provisions. - Arrangement for the Call of a

Summer Session.– Mr. Stanbery's Exposition of the Reconstruction Acts. - The

Summer Session of 1867.— The Second Supplementary Reconstruction Act: Its

Provisions. -- Appropriations for Carrying out the Reconstruction Acts. — The

President's Communication. - The Resolution of the House in Reply. - Sharp

Talk. - The Completion of Congressional Legislation on the Subject in 1867. -

Condition of the Desolated States in 1867......

...605

CHAPTER LXXXIV. THE WORK OF RESTORATION.

Votes on the Fourteenth Constitutional Amendment. – The New States and Recon-

structed States likely to vote for it. — Action of the Commanders of the Military

Districts. - The Fifth District. - Measures adopted by General Sheridan, - His

Reasons for them. — Further Action of General Sheridan. — Governor Wells re-

moved, and Governor Flanders appointed. - Incidents in Charleston: The Rail-

road Cars; The Flag at the Charleston Fire Parade. - General Sickles' Order

No. 10: Its Provisions. — Attorney-General Stanbery's Objections to it. - Other

Orders of General Sickles. - He asks to be relieved of his Command. - Troubles

a General Pope's District. -- Insubordination of Governor Jenkins: General Pope

asks that he be removed; General Grant's Indorsement. — Riot in Mobile. - In

Richmond. - Registration, and Powers of Military Commanders. - The Interfer-

ence of the Attorney-General. - His Written Opinions. - General Grant decides

that they are not Mandatory. - General Sheridan's Opinion of them. - Removal

of Throckmorton. --Sheridan's Complaint of Rousseau. - The Removal of Secre-

tary Stanton determined upon, and of General Sheridan also. — The President's

Leiter to Stanton. - Stanton's Reply. - General Grant's Private Letter to the Presi-

dent. — Stanton suspended, and Grant appointed Secretary of War ad interim. -

The Order for Sheridan's Removal. - General Grant's Protest. - The President's

Reply. - Thomas appointed to the Fifth District, but declines on account of his

Health. - Hancock appointed. - General Griffin's Death. - General Sickles' Re-

moval. — Generals Canby and Mower's Orders. — The President's two Proclama-

tions. - Who are to be amnestied. — The President's Pardons. - General Han-

cock's Special Order. — The President's delight with it. - He proposes that Con-

gress shall make a Public Recognition of the General's Patriotism. — Congress

* don't see it." - Measures of General Hancock. - General Grant revokes his

Orders. - Hancock asks to be relieved, and is appointed by the President to the

Command of the New Department of Washington. - The New Constitutions.-

Alabama: The Measures of the Rebels to prevent the adoption of the Constitution.

- The Constitutions of the other States adopted. — Vote on Convention and Con-

stitution .......................................................... .....024

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THE SOUTH.

CHAPTER I.

THE START.

In the month of August, 1865, I set out to visit some of the scenes of the great conflict through which the country had lately passed.

On the twelfth I reached Harrisburg, — a plain, prosaic town of brick and wood, with nothing especially attractive about it except its broad-sheeted, shining river, flowing down from the Blue Ridge, around wooded islands, and between pleasant shores.

It is in this region that the traveller from the North first meets with indications of recent actual war. The Susquehanna, on the eastern shore of which the city stands, forms the northern limit of Rebel military operations. The “high-water mark of the Rebellion” is here: along these banks its uttermost ripples died. The bluffs opposite the town are still crested with the hastily constructed breastworks, on which the citizens worked night and day in the pleasant month of June, 1863, throwing up, as it were, a dike against the tide of invasion. These defences were of no practical value. They were unfinished when the Rebels appeared in force in the vicinity : Harrisburg might easily have been taken, and a way opened into the heart of the North. But a Power greater than man's ruled the event. The Power that lifted these azure hills, and spread out the green valleys, and hollowed a passage for the stream, appointed to treason also a limit and a term. “ Thus far and no farther.”

The surrounding country is full of lively reminiscences of those terrible times. Panic-stricken populations flying at the approach of the enemy; whole families fugitive from homes none thought of defending; flocks and herds, horses, wagonloads of promiscuously heaped household stuffs and farm produce, – men, women, children, riding, walking, running, drive ing or leading their bewildered four-footed chattels, — all rushing forward with clamor and alarm under clouds of dust, crowding every road to the river, and thundering across the long' bridges, regardless of the “ five-dollars-fine” notice, (though it is to be hoped that the toll-takers did their duty ;)

- such were the scenes which occurred to render the Rebel invasion memorable. The thrifty Dutch farmers of the lower counties did not gain much credit either for courage or patriotism at that time. It was a panic, however, to which almost any community would have been liable. Stuart's famous raid of the previous year was well remembered. If a small cavalry force had swept from their track through a circuit of about sixty miles over two thousand horses, what was to be expected from Lee's whole army? Resistance to the formidable advance of one hundred thousand disciplined troops was of course out of the question. The slowness, however, with which the people responded to the State's almost frantic calls for volunteers was in singular contrast with the alacrity each man showed to run off his horses and getohis goods out of Rebel

reach.

From Harrisburg I went, by the way of York and Hanover, to Gettysburg. Having hastily secured a room at a hotel in the Square, (the citizens call it the “Di’mond,") I inquired the way to the battle-ground.

“ You are on it now," said the landlord, with proud satisfaction, — for it is not every man that lives, much less keeps a tavern, on the field of a world-famous fight. “ I tell you the truth,” said he ; and, in proof of his words, (as if the fact were too wonderful to be believed without proof,) he showed me a Rebel shell imbedded in the brick wall of a house close by. (N. B. The battle-field was put into the bill.)

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