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the Sixth Period continued to occupy public favour, 1833, under the title of Sacred Classics,' being rethough with small deservings, down to the beginning prints of celebrated authors whose labours have of this century, when a sudden and irrecoverable been devoted to the elucidation of the principles of eclipse came over them. The Edinburgh Review, revealed religion. Two clergymen (Mr Cattermole started in October 1802 under circumstances else- and Mr Stebbing) edited this library, and it was no where detailed, was a work entirely new in our bad index to their fitness for the office, that they literature, not only as it brought talent of the first opened it with Jeremy Taylor's ‘Liberty of Proorder to bear upon periodical criticism, but as it phesying,' one of the niost able, high-spirited, and presented many original and brilliant disquisitions eloquent of theological or ethical treatises. The on subjects of public concernment apart from all Edinburgh Cabinet Library,' commenced in 1830, consideration of the literary productions of the day, and still in progress (though not in regular interIt met with instant success of the most decided vals of a month between each volume), is chiefly kind, and it still occupies an important position in devoted to geographical and historical subjects. the English world of letters. As it was devoted to Among its contributors have been Sir John Leslie, the support of Whig politics, the Tory or minis- Professors Jameson and Wallace, Mr Tytler, Mr terial party of the day soon felt a need for a simi. James Baillie Fraser, Professor Spalding, Mr Hugh lar organ of opinion on their side, and this led to Murray, Dr Crichton, Dr Russell
, &c. The conthe establishment of the Quarterly Review in 1809. venience of the monthly mode of publication has The Quarterly has ever since kept abreast with its recommended it to both publishers and readers: northern rival in point of ability. The Westminster editions of the works of Scott, Miss Edgeworth, Review was established in 1824, by Mr Bentham and Byron, Crabbe, Moore, Southey, the fashionable his friends, as a medium for the representation of novels, &c. have been thus issued and circulated in Radical opinions. In point of talent this work has thousands. Old standard authors and grave his. been comparatively unequal.
torians, decked out in this gay monthly attire, have The same improvement which the Edinburgh also enjoyed a new lease of popularity : Boswell's Review originated in the critical class of periodicals Johnson, Shakspeare and the elder dramatists, was effected in the department of the magazines, Hume, Smollett, and Lingard, Tytler's Scotland, or literary miscellanies, by the establishment, in Cowper, Robert Hall, and almost innumerable other 1817, of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, which British worthies, have been so published. Those has been the exemplar of many other similar pub- libraries, however (notwithstanding the intentions lications—Fraser's, Tait's, the New Monthly, Me and sanguine predictions of Constable), were chiefly tropolitan, &c.-presenting each month a melange supported by the more opulent and respectable of original articles in light literature, mingled with classes. To bring science and literature within the papers of political disquisition. In all of these grasp of all, a society was formed in 1825 for the works there is now literary matter of merit equal Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, at the head of which to what obtained great reputations Afty years ago; were several statesmen and leading members of the yet in general presented anonymously, and only Whig aristocracy-Lords Auckland, Althorp (dow designed to serve the immediate purpose of amusing Earl Spencer), John Russell, Nugent, Suffield, Mr the idle hours of the public.
Henry Brougham (afterwards Lord Broughan), Sir
James Mackintosh, Dr Maltby (Bishop of Durham),
1 merit, and combining cheapness with elegance, was commenced by Mr Constable in 1827. It had been
! planned by him two years before, when his active mind was full of splendid schemes; and he was con
11 fident that if he lived for half-a-dozen years, he would make it as impossible that there should not be a good library in every decent house in Britain, as that the shepherd's ingle-nook should want the salt poke.' 'Constable's Miscellany' was not begun till after the failure of the great publisher's house, but it presented some attraction, and enjoyed for several years considerable though unequal success. The works were issued in monthly numbers at a shilling each, and volumes of three shillings and sixpence. Basil Hall's Travels, and Lockhart's Life of Burns, were included in the Miscellany, and had a great sale. The example of this Edinburgh scheme stirred up a London publisher, Mr Murray, to attempt a similar series in the English metropolis. Hence began the 'Family Library,' which was continued for about twelve years, and ended in 1841 with the eightieth volume. Mr Murray made his volumes five shillings each, adding occasionally engravings and woodcuts, and publishing several works of
Henry Lord Brougham.
society are excellent compendiums of knowledge; united with great powers of expression, than the but the general fault of their scientific treatises has Rev. WILLIAM WHEWELL, master of Trinity colbeen, that they are too technical and abstruse for lege, Cambridge. The History of the Inductive the working-classes, and are, in point of fact, pur- Sciences, three volumes, 1837, and the Philosophy of chased and read chiefly by those in better srations the Inductive Sciences, founded upon their History, two of life. Another series of works of a higher cast, volumes, 1840, are amongst the few books of the entitled • The Library of Entertaining Knowledge,' age which realise to our minds the self-devoting in four-shilling volumes, has also emanated from zeal and life-long application of the world's earlier this society, as well as a very valuable and exten- students. Mr Whewell was also the author of that
ve series of maps and charts, forming a complete member of the series of Bridgewater Treatises atlas. A collection of portraits, with biographical in which astronomy and general physics were memoirs, and an improved description of almanac, brought to the illustration of natural theology published yearly, have formed part of the society's Another modern writer of unusually varied attainoperations. Their labours have on the whole been ments was the late Dr John MacCULLOCH, author beneficial ; and though the demand for cheap litera- of a work on the Western Islands of Scotland; a ture was rapidly extending, the steady impulse and valuable geological one, presenting a classification encouragement given to it by a society possessing of rocks; and a posthumous treatise, in three ample funds and large influence, must have tended volumes, on the Attributes of the Deity. materially to accelerate its progress. It was obvious, The almost infant science of Ethnography has however, that the field was not wholly occupied, but received a powerful illustration from the industrious that large masses, both in the rural and manufac- labours of DR PRITCHARD, whose Inquiries into the turing districts, were unable either to purchase or Physical History of Man is a book standing almost understand many of the treatises of the Society for alone in our literature. It tends to show the accithe Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Under this dental nature of the distinctions of colour and figure impression, the publishers of the present work amongst races of men, and to establish the unity of commenced, in February 1832, their weekly perio- the human species. Dr Pritchard's work on the Celts dical, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, consisting of is also one of considerable value, particularly for the original papers on subjects of ordinary life, science, light it throws on the history of language. and literature, and containing in each number a The Architecture of the Heavens, by PROFESSOR quantity of matter equal to that in a number of NichoL of Glasgow, has deservedly attained great the society's works, and sold at one-fourth of the popularity as a beautiful exposition of the sublime price. The result of this extraordinary cheapness observations of Sir William Herschel and others was a circulation soon exceeding fifty thousand respecting the objects beyond the range of the solar weekly, and which has now risen to about ninety system, and of the hypothesis of the nebular costhousand. The Penny Magazine, a respectable perio- mogony. It has been followed by a volume of dical, and the Penny Cyclopædia, were afterwards equally eloquent disquisition, under the title of commenced by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Contemplations on the Solar System. The principles of Knowledge, and attained each a very great circula- Natural Philosophy have been illustrated with great tion. There are numerous other labourers in the success in the language of common life, in the Elesame field of humble usefulness; and it is scarcely ments of Physics by Dr NEIL ARNOTT. possible to enter a cottage or workshop without The various departments of knowledge connected meeting with some of these publications-cheering with medicine have been illustrated by several the leisure moments of the peasant or mechanic, and, writers of the highest talent, from whom it is almost by withdrawing him from the operation of the grosser invidious to single out the few names which we have senses, elevating him in the scale of rational beings. room to notice. In physiology, the works of Bostock,
LAWRENCE, MAYO, ELLIOTSON, Roget, FLETCHER, WRITERS ON SCIENCE,
and CARPENTER, stand deservedly high, while the
popular treatises of Dr Combs are remarkable for The age has been highly distinguished by a series their extensive usefulness, due to their singularly of scientific writers whose works, being of a popu- lucid and practical character. The Curiosities of Melar description, may be said to enter into the circle dical Experience by Dr MilliNGEN, the treatises of of general literature. At the head of this class may Sir JAMES CLARK on Climate and Consumption, the be placed Sir Johs HERSCHEL, whose Discourse on various tracts of Sir HENRY HALFORD, DR SOUTHNaturul Philosophy is perhaps the most perfect work wood Smith's Philosophy of Health, and Dr Copeof its kind ever published. Sir David BREWSTER LANV's Dictionary of Practical Meduine, are but a also presents a remarkable union of scientific ac- meagre selection from a great range of medical compastiments with the grace and spirit of a first- works of talent calculated for general reading. rate litterateur. His Letters on Natural Magic, Life of Newton, History of Optics, and various contri
ENCYCLOPÆDIAS. butions to the Edinburghi and Quarterly Reviews, The progress of ENCYCLOPÆDIAS, or alphabetical are equally noted for literary elegance as for pro- digests of knowledge, is a remarkable feature in the found knowledge. A high place in this walk is literature of modern times. The first was the Cyclodue to Me CHARLES BABBAGE, author of the Eco- pædia of Ephraim Chambers, published in 1728, in nomy of Machinery and Manufactures; a Ninth Bridge- two large folio volumes, of which five editions were water Treatise, &c. The latter work is a most inge- published within eighteen years. As the work of nious attempt to bring mathematics into the range one individual, the Cyclopædia of Chambers is (f sciences which afford proof of divine design in highly honourable to his taste, industry, and knowthe constitution of the world, and contains, besides, ledge. The proprietors of this work in 1776 enmany original and striking thoughts. The works on gaged Dr Abraham Rees, a dissenting clergyman geology, by Dr BUCKLAND, Mr MURCHISON, MR (1743–1825), to superintend a new and enlarged CHARLES LYELL, SIR HENRY DELABECHE, and DR edition of it, which appeared in 1785, and was well MANTELL, are all valuable contributions to the received. They then agreed with the same gentlelibrary of modern science.
man to undertake a new and magnificent work of a Perhaps no writer of the present day has shown similar nature; and in 1802 the first volume of in his works a more extensive range of knowledge, | Rees's Cyclopædia was issued, with illustrations in a style of engraving never surpassed in this country. was found in the late Dr James Browne, a man of This splendid work extended to forty-five volumes. varied and extensive learning. New and valuable In 1751-54 appeared Barrow's New and Universal articles were contributed by Sir David Brewster, by Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, and in 1766 an- Mr Galloway, Dr Traill, Dr Roget, Dr John Thomother Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, compiled by son, Mr Tytler, Professor Spalding, Mr Moir, &c. the Rev. H. Croker, Dr Thomas Williams, and Mr This great national work-for such it may justiy Samuel Clerk. The celebrated French Encyclo- be entitled—was completed in 1842, in twenty-ona pédie was published between the years 1751 and volumes. 1765. Among the various schemes of Goldsmith, In the interval between the different editions of was A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, for the Encyclopædia Britannica, two other important which he wrote a prospectus (unfortunately lost), and works of the same kind were in progress. The to which the most eminent British writers were to be Edinburgh Encyclopædia, under the superintencontributors. The premature death of Goldsmith dence of Sir David Brewster, was commenced in frustrated this plan. In 1771 the Encyclopædia 1808, and completed in 1830, in eighteen quarto Britannica, edited by Mr William Smellie, was pub- volumes. The scientific department of the work, lished in four volumes quarto, presenting a novel under such an editor, could not fail to be rich and and important improvement upon its predecessors : valuable, and it is still highly prized. The Encyclo'it treated each science completely in a systematic pædia Metropolitana was begun in 1815, and preform, under its proper denomination; the technical sented this difference from its rivals, that it determs and subordinate heads being also explained parted from the alphabetical arrangement (certainly alphabetically, when anything more than a refer- the most convenient), and arranged its articles in ence to the general treatise was required.' The se- what the conductors considered their natural order. cond edition of this work, commenced in 1776, was Coleridge was one of the writers in this work; some enlarged to ten volumes, and embraced biography of its philological articles are ingenious. The Lonand history. The third edition, completed in 1797, don Encyclopædia, in twenty volunes royal 8vo., ig amounted to eighteen volumes, and was enriched a useful compendiun, and includes the whole of with valuable treatises on grammar and metaphysics, Johnson's Dictionary, with its citations. Lardner's by the Rev. Dr Gleig; with profound articles on Cyclopædia is a collection of different works on mythology, mysteries, and philology, by Dr Doig; natural philosophy, arts, and manufactures, history, and with an elaborate view of the philosophy of in- biography, &c. published in 131 small 8vo. volumes, duction and contributions in physical science, by issued monthly. The series embraces some valuable Professor Robison. Two supplementary volumes works: Sir James Mackintosh contributed part of a were afterwards added to this work. A fo edi- popular history of England, Sir Walter Scott and tion was issued under the superintendence of Dr Mr Moore histories of Scotland and Ireland, and M James Miller, and completed in 1810; it was en- Sismondi one of the Italian republics. Sir Joha riched with some admirable scientific treatises from Herschel wrote for it the Discourse on Natural the pen of Professor Wallace. Two other editions, Philosophy, already alluded to, and a treatise on merely nominal, of this Encyclopædią were published; Astronomy; and Sir David Brewster contributed and a supplement to the work was projected by the the history of Optics. In natural history and other late Mr Constable, and was placed under the charge departments this Cyclopædia is also valuable, but of Professor Macvey Napier. To this supplement Con- as a whole it is very defective. Popular Cyclostable attracted the greatest names both in Britain pædias, in one large volume each, have been puband France: it contained contributions from Dugald lished, condensing a large amount of information. Stewart, - Playfair, Jameson, Leslie, Mackintosh, Dr Of these Mr M Culloch is author of one on comThomas Thomson, Sir Walter Scott, Jeffrey, Ricar- merce, and another on geography; Dr Ure on arts do, Malthus, Mill, Professor Wallace, Dr Thomas and manufactures; Mr Brande on science, literature, Young, M. Biot, M. Arago, &c. The supplement and art; Mr Blaine on rural sports. There is also was completed in 1824, in six volumes. Six years a series of Cyclopædias on a larger scale, devoted ta afterwards, when the property had fallen into the the various departments of medical science ; namely, hands of Messrs Adam and Charles Black, a new the Cyclopædia of Practical Medicine, edited by edition of the whole was commenced, incorporating Drs Forbes, Tweedie, and Conolly; the Cyclopædia all the articles in the supplement, with such modifi- of Anatomy and Physiology, edited by Dr A. T. cations and additions as were necessary to adjust Thomson; and the Cyclopædia of Surgery, edited by them to the later views and information applicable Dr Costello; each being in four massive volumes, to their subjects. Mr Napier was chosen editor, and and composed of papers by the first men of the proan assistant in the work of revision and addition /fession in the country.
Conciliation with, ij..
188 Atterbury, Pope to, i.
Auld Robin Gray, ii.
231 Aurora on Melissa's Birthday, Ode
681 AUSTEN, Miss, ii.
132 Author,' an, must Feel what he
129 Writes, i.
Avalanche, Swiss Mountain and, ii. 684
663 Baby's Debut, the-By W. W.-Re-
667 Babylon, Summons of the Destroy-
73 Angling, Recommendation of, ii. Bacox, Lieltenant Tiomas, ii. . 630
mens of, Previous to 1300, i.
1-36 Bagdad, the City of Magnificence
663 Bagdad, View of Society in, ii 677, 678
525 BAILLIE, JOANNA, ii. 451-453, 511-514
294 Baillie, Miss Agnes, Address to, on
153 her Birthday, ii.
AXSTEY, CHRISTOPHER, ii.
7 Rall, Scene from the, i.
409 Ballad-- 'Twas when the seas were
231 Ballad-Singer, the Country, i. 572
539 Balwhidder, Mr, Placing of, as Minis-
18 BARYFIELD, RICHARD, i.
3 Arctic Discovery, ii.
ARMSTRONG, JOHN, ii.
5 Battle-field, Solitude on the, ii. 140
76 Battle of Flodden, ii.
527 Bawdin, Sir Charles, Death of, ii. 84
Aspirations After the Infinite- BAXTER, RICHARD, i.
614 BURY, LADY CHARLOTTE, il.
642 Busy-Body, the, i.
345-353, 408, 409
271 Butler's Remains, Miscellaneoas
250 Thoughts from, i.
68 Butterfly, to the, ii.
191 BYRON, LORD, Ii.
3.33 Cade's Insurrection, i.
345 C.EDNOX, i.
491 Cairo, Legend of the Mosque of the
491 Bloody Baptism at, ii.
24 CALAMY, EDMUND, i.
130 CALDERON DE LA BARCA, ma-
BRAY, MRS, ii.
629 CALDERWOOD, DAVID, i.
123 Caldon-Low, the Fairies of the, ii.
685 Caleb Williams, Concluding Scene of,
83 ii. .
BREWSTER, SIR DAVID, ii. 703 Calista's Passion for Lothario, i
142 Bride's Tragedy, Passages from the, ii. 521 CAMDEN, WILLIAM, i.
676 Bristow Tragedy, or the Death of Sir Cameronian's Dream, the, ii.
84 CAMPBELL, DR G. ii.
250 CAMPBELL, DR Jonx, ii. 191,
231 CAMPBELL, Jonx, ii.
327 CAMPBELL, MAJOR CALDER, ii.
642 CAMPBELL, THOMAS, ii. 362-34, 648, 678
672 Candle, to my, ii.
216 CANNING, GEORG E, ii.
473 Canning, G. Portraiture of-[Frum
668 Broomstick, a Meditation upon, ac- De Vere, or the Man of Indqa-
Canning's Lines on the Death of his
698 Eidest Son, ii. .
702 Canterbury Pilgrimage, Select Cha-
678 racters from the, i.
648 Canterbury Tales, Introduction to
118 the, ii.
298 Cape, Spirit of the, ii.
Caractacus, Passage from, ii.
524 Careless Content, ii.
663 CAREW, LADY ELIZABETH, i.
94 CAREW, Thomas, i.
572 CARLETON, WILLIAN, ii. 615, 636
270 Brutus and Titus, Scene between, i. 301 CARLYLE, THOMAS, ii.
Carnatic, Destruction of the, ii.
161, 307 CARNE, JOnx, ii.
531 Buchanan's Latin Version of the CARPENTER, DR, ii.
137th Psalm, i.
162 CARRINGTOX, X. T. ii.
703 Castle of Indolence, from the, ii. 19
328 Cataract and the Streamlet, ii.
642 Cato, from the Tragedy of, i.
686 Cause and Effect, i. .
466 lands), ii.
668 CAXTON, WILLIAM, Í.
3 Burial Ground in the Highlands, Censorious People, i.
435 CHALKHILL, Joux, i.
CHALMERS, DR THOMAS, il. 661, 701
29 Burke and the Duke of Bedford, Dif- Chalmers, Dr T.-his appearances
233 in London (Note), ii. .
90 Burke's Account of his Son, ii. 230 CHALMERS, GEORGE, fi.
234 Chamæleon, the-[George Buchanan)
450 CHAMBERLAYNE, William, i.
486 CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM, ii.
283 BURNET, JANES [Lord Monboddo), CHAMBERS, ROBERT, ii.
249 Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, ii.
535 Chameleon, the-Merrick), ii.
the Vale of, ii.
tending the Composition of Eve- Change, ii.
538 CHAPMAN, George, i.
646 Burney, Sarah HARRIET, ii. 539 Character, Anatomy of, performed
479 486 by Uncharitableness [From The
243 Burns--from his Epistles, &c. ii. 484-486 Character, an Original - (From
644, 672 Dickens's American Notes), il .
Charcoal Fire, Kindling of, 1. 273