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ed, in the year 1593, an invitation as professor at Leyden, where he died April 6. 1609. Clufius was the greatest genius of his age, and profecuted the study of botany with an enthusiastic zeal, and a perse. verance, which was not equalled by any preceding philosophers, vor by any of his followers. His works show us the great botaniit; and they will always remain valuable and indispensably necessary. The cuts an. nexed to them are neat, the figures distinct, and his descriptions maiter. ly. It was a pity that a man of so great merit should have suffered fo much, and even become the first martyr for botany.' !
From this fpecimen, our readers may judge, whether we have done wrong or otherwise, in saying that the history was mirnamed; they may likewise judge, what proportion the boranical information contained in this extract, bears to the irrelevant matter with which it is connected..
Upon the whole, however, it is our duty to say, that the fame dilignce and judgment is displayed in this volume, that we already have had occasion to ascribe to M. Willdenow, when pronouncing our opwion of his edition of the Species Plantaru n of Linnæus ; and we venturt, without hifitation, to recommend the Principles of Botany and Vegetable Phyfiology, to those who wish to become acquainted with the fince, as the most complete introductory treatise on the subjcct hitherto published.
The translator seems to have understood the subject ; for the language he employs is in general corred. In the Terminology, however, an attempt to trandate one word of Latin into one word of Eglish, has led him to make uli of lune rather awkward exprellions; e. g. præmorfum is translatud bitten ; the world, lowever, we conceive, lignifics somewhat more than bitt.'n, i. e. fomething bitten before or towar.is the point; thus, præinorsum folium, or præmorsa radix, (for both are given, and the same definition is repeated to each), fignifies a leaf or root, that terminates so abruptly, as tu seem to have its point or extremity bitt'n off. Were the bare word bitter to be employed to express præmorsum, and any one to talk of a bitren luf, or bitten root, he would be but ill understood by the bulk of his hearers. Both fistularis and concavu, are translated boilw: the lam: exprellions thould not have been employed to expreis two terins so very distin t, particularly as concave is so well naturalized as to become a denizen in the English language.
Fios multiplicatus, is improperly translated a double flower, and flos plenus, a ful flower. When a flower makes an appro.ch to become doubk, that is, when its petals are double, treble, &c. the uiual number, provided they do not entirely occupy the place of the itamina and pistilium, it is called a femidouble flower (fios multiplicatus); when the petals are lo numerous as to leave 110 room for itamina and pisillum, a double flower is formi (flos F 4
plenus.) These two expressions of semidouble, and double flower, are not only understood by botanists and florists, but are so well established, as to be very generally understood ; but a full flower by no means expresses what is meant by flos plenus.
Art. VI. Observations on a Journey through Spain and Italy to
Naples ; and thence to Smyrna and Constantinople : comprising a Description of the Principal Places in that Route, and Remarks on the present Natural and Political State of those Countries. By
Robert Semple, author of “ Walks and Sketches at the Cape,” -&c. 2 vol. 8vo. pp. 484. London. Baldwin. 1807.
W e have repeatedly had occafion to remark, that the world is
W laid under great obligations to those who, in the pursuit of some professional object, visit foreign countries, and afterwards deliver to the public, in a plain unambitious manner, the result of the inquiries which they may have incidentally been led to make during their excursions. From this class of writers, we cannot certainly expect such full and valuable information as we are enti. tled to require of profeffed travellers. But they are exceedingly useful, and merit every encouragement, because, the stuff of which they are made exifts at all times in great abundance, and is ta be found during a period peculiarly unfavourable to the production of the other class.-In order to contribute our humble share to this object, we have made it a rule, not indeed to praise their publications indiscriminately, but to bestow an unusual degree of attention upon them, as soon as they appeared ; and, in pursuance of this plan, we haften to make our readers acquainted with the work now before us, which belongs to the fame defcription.
Mr Sample, though an English merchant, was born in Ame. rica, and this circumitance enabled him to travel, in 1805 and 1806, over countries from which British fubic&s, in general, were excluded. Ilis tour comprchended fome of the most interesting parts of Europe, many of which were, at that time, the feat of war, and although his profeffioral avocations both shortened his itay in places which it would have been peculiarly important to examine, and provented him from employing, in the manner mott pri fitable to his readers, the time which he did de. Yote to matters of mere curiosity, yet he has, in general, obfcrved well what he fou, and he delivers his remarks, for the most part, like a fensible man. His uk is according's both intructive and entertaining, and leaves us only the more cause to regret
that his other pursuits should have circumscribed it within such narrow limits, -obliging him to pass over, almost in silence, several of the chief objects of attention. Nor let any one detract from this praise, by suggesting that it would be difficult to describe a journey through such countries as Spain and Italy, without affording amusement and information. This difficulty has been often surmounted, like other obstacles in the way of the adventurous traveller. Mr Lemaitre and Mr William Hunter made no more of it than they would of a steep hill or a rough ferry; and even Mr Kotzebue contrived to get almost entirely the better of it, although in his case the effort must have been far more painful.
Mr Semple's passage to Lisbon, and his residence there, afforded few occurrences worthy of attention. About the middle of July 1805, he set off for Madrid, by the way of Badajos, travelling post; that is to say, riding almost day and night on posthorses, which are changed at each stage. As the manner of travelling, and the accommodation at the inns, were almost the only subjects which a journey of this sort could introduce to our author, we have a very accurate and lively account of them. The following description of a Portuguese venta, or inn, may satisfy our readers probably better than if they had tried the reality. It appears, however, to be a favourable specimen of the accommodation in that country, and, as we shall presently see, far superior to any thing which the neighbouring kingdom has to boast of.
It was ten o'clock before we could leave Arrayolos, and the sun began already to be very hot. We defcended the hill, and, after rid. ing a few miles, the country assumed a different aspect from what we had yet seen; the mountains rising in a rounder form, and beginning to be covered with trees to their summits. It was paft mid-day before we reached La Venta del Duque, a distance of three leagues. We found it to be a fingle house, without a village or hamlet near it, and upwards of a mile from the post-house, which also stood alone on the . top of a hill. As the heat, however, was now excessive, without the smallest breeze, we determined to remain a few hours, and accordingly entered the house, which I will describe. A single room or hall occupied all the lower part, unfloored, and serving as a retreat both to the family and their poultry, which were perched all round. At one end a seat was built along the wall, and, corresponding to it, a low table like that which hermits are represented as using, but formed of bricks and mortar instead of turf. On the opposite side of this immoveable table, great pieces of cork supplied the place of stools, which, when we tried to lift them, surprized us by their lightness. On a large open fireplace ftood two or three full narrow-necked earthen jars, which formed the whole kitchen apparatus, and this completes the furniture of the
lower room. The space above stairs was divided into several apartments, furnished with mats, and one or two mattresses for itrangers to sleep on; and one room locked up containe! the wealth of the family. Having fignifiert our wish to eat, two fowls were instantly killed, stripped, cut into pieces, and put into one of the narrow-necked jars with a little water and other ingredients. The jar was then placed on the hearth, and hot embers swept round the bottom of it; and this was the whole process of cooking. Meantime we lay down to seen, and, when called to our meal, fo!ind all the riches of the house displayed. Our table was spread with a clean napkin, two earthen plates, one silver and soine wooden spoons, and a pitcher of tolerable wine. Hunger made us, pehaps, elteem the Portuguese cookery more highly than we might otherwise have done ; for we finished the contents of our jar, and agreed in calling them excellent. The heat of the day being pait, we prepared to mount our horses, and, greatly exhilarated by a comfortable meal, and a draught of wine, where we had expected to find little or notning, pursued our journey towards Estremoz.' Vol. I, p. 27-30.
Upon arriving at Madrid, our traveller orders his postillion to stop at the hotel called La Cruz de Malta ; and remarks, somewhat affectedly, • Each of my travelling companions has houses and friends to repair to; but I am a stranger, and alone, and I go to La Cruz ile Malta :' which is certainly a pathetic consideration, and yet we own it does not very deeply move us. At Madrid he remained several weeks, and mide excursions into the neighbourhood, for the purpose of visiting Toledo, St Ildefonso, the Escurial, &c. Flis descriprions both of the capital, and of those interesting spots, are extremely good ; but we shall content ourselves with extracing his account or the Prado, which cannot fail to strike the reader as given in a suihiciently picturesque manncr.
• The prado is ad nirable in all its parts, being a broad walk, adorsed with handiome fountaios, and divided into avenues by rows of trees; it bounds the whole of one five of the town, being terminated at each end hy one of the gates of ihe city. The tree's leading down to it are the broadeit and finelt in Madrid, and or the oppofite fide are the gardens, pleasure.grounds, and palace of the Retiro, worthy of the residence of a prince, although at present only used by the King as a shooting ground during his Itay at Madrid. The fountains of the prado are in general formed after antique models, and the water of one of them is the purest in the whole city, and the only kind of which the present kis drinks, water being his sole beverage. One very broad walk adorned with these fountains, is thronged every tine evening with the best company ; and on Sundays, the king, queen and royal family, ride up anj down the carriage road, and faluie ihe people constantly a: they país. It is on the prado that the ftranger may ftudy with advantage ihe drels, the air, and the gait of the Spaniards ; for then all país ia review before him, from the prince to the beggar. The nobleman alights
from his carriage, and saunters among the throng, seemingly careless about his fine dress, and the ornaments at his button-hole, although no·body glances at them so often as himself ; the citizen dresses in the mode general throughout Europe thirty years ago ; whilst the lower classes chat venture on the prado, fill wear their clothes thrown over the shoulder, and thus preserve the lat reliques of the ancient toga. All the men wear large cocked hats, and all finoke cigars ; for this latter purpose boys run up and down the prado with a kind of now torch, which burns without flaming, and serves to light the çigari. In oppofition to them, waitr carriers, with their porous, carthen vases and goblets, vend the cool water of the neighbouring fountains ; and the various cries of fire, tire, and fresh water, water, are heard above the buzz of the mingled crowd. But the women principally attract the eyes of the itranger. Their simple and elegant dress, their veils, which serve any purpose but that of concealing their faces, the freedom of their walk, and their looks attractive, but not immodest, tend to make an Euglish man forget for a moment that they are greatly inferior in point of real beauty to the women of his own country.
• There is one cultum which pleased me much, and which no where produces fu ftriking an effi & as on the prado. Exaclly at sunset, the bulls of the churches and convents give the ligoal for repeating the evening prayer to the Virgin. In an initant the busy multitude is hushed and arreted, as if by magic. The carriages stop, the women veil their faces with their fars, the men take off their hats, and all breathe out, or are supposed to breathe, a short prayer to the protecting Power which has brought them to the close of another day. After a short, a folemn, and not an unplealing pause, the men bow and put on their hats, the women uncover their faces, the carriages drive on, and the whole crowd is again in motion as before. This is one of the few Catholic cuftoms which appears to partake of piety without fuperftition, and diverted of altars, candlesticks, rapers and images.' I. p. 59-62.
Mr Semple left Madrid on the 22d of October, on his way to Cadiz and Gibraltar. Having heard before his departure, that positive orders had arrived for the combined fleets to sail and at. iack the English squadron, he was exceedingly anxious to see the battle, or, at any rate, to learn the event of it; and he performed the journey as before, on post-horses. The following short extract gives a fair description of a Spanish inn.
• We reached Ocana, a village on the top of a steep hill, two leagues from Aranjuez. It being now quite dark, and the storm continuing, I determined to remain here will day-break. As I had formed no expectations, I was not chagrined to find fo few comforts in a Spanish inn, Although drenched to the skin, so that even my boots were filled with water, here was no cheerful fire, no clean room, no ready attendant. On each le of a large fire-place, fat an old wo:nan and her daughter cowring over two or three f.nuky bundles of wet brushwood; a chair, a cable, and a fnall glimmering la.np formed the furniture ; and here was