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highly animated and interesting : but they are a great deal too long. for either quotation or abstract. Soon after their presentation, attempts were made to enter upon business; but in vain; they were told to wait till the court went to Pekin, whither, indeed, they were themselves speedily ordered to proceed. They had not been long there, when the court followed them; and in a few days, the shortness of their subsequent stay in China, which had repeatedly been hinted at, was more formally unfolded to them. Lord Marcartney had made another attempt at proceeding to business, when
The minister, with his usual address, avoided entering into any dir. coffion of thefe points, which I had taken so much pains to lay before him, and turned the discourse upon the state of my health, assuring me that the emperor's proposal for my departure arose chiefly from his anxiety about it ; for that otherwise my stay could not but be agreeable to him.
• Although from the course of the conversation, and from the deportment of the minister and his two affeffors, I was led to draw rather an unfavourable inference relative to my business, yet when I rose to take leave, nothing could be more gracious, or more flattering, than the exprelfione which he made ufe of to me upon the occasion, in so much that my interpreter congratulated me on the fair prospect of my negociation, and said that he expected the bappiest issue from it. Nevertheless, fince my return home, I have received two different communications, by which I am informed, that the emperor's answer to the king's letter is already prepared, and sent to be translated into Latin from the Chinese. This, I find, is an infallible indication of the court's intentions, and as a signal for us to take our leave. I am afraid that there is good ground for my apprehenfion, as Van-ta-gin and Chou-ta-gin, who have just been here, teil me that I shall have a message from the minister to meet him to-morrow at the palace. They say, that the emperor's letter for the king will probally be then delivered to me (for they pretend not to know certainly that it will), in which case, they advise me to ask permission to depart without delay. I suppose they have been directed to hold this discourse to me.'-11. 299.
A few more suggestions were given next day; and, in short, they were so pressed from different quarters, that it was absolutely necessary they should demand leave to set out, in order to prevent some still broader and coarser hints.' It was immedia ately granted, and they began their journey on the 7th October. The account of this journey is very interesting.
The following passage does not certainly confirm the high notions which fanciful writers have conceived of the Chinese administration.
• In the course of conversation, they said that, including all the yachts, baggage-boats, and those of the attending Mandarines, there
were forty vessels employed on our present expedition, and upwards of a thousand perfoos attached to this service. Taat the emperor allows five thousand taels per day (each tael equal to 6s. 84.) for defraying the expense of it; and that, if that sum fhould fall fhort, it must be levied on the provinces we pass threugh. That one thousand five hundred taels per day were allotted for the expense of our relidence at Pekin, and that they were scarcely sufficient. Although the maintenance of the embally muft have undoubtedly been very considerable, I can by no means conceive it in any degree adequate to so large an amount. That it has been fully charged to the emperor is highly probable ; but between the money charged, and the money actually expended, I understand there is usually a very naterial difference; for, though the emperor's warrant may be signed for a great fum, yet the checks of office, as they are called, are so numerous and so burdensome, that before it arrives at its last ftage, it is almoft sweated to nothing. I remember Clus.ta.gir telling me one day, as an inttance of this, that an inundation in the course of last year had swept away a village in the province of Cbar. tong so suddenly, that the inhabitaots could save nothing but their lives. The emperor (who, from having formerly hunted there, was well acquainted with the place) immediately ordered one hundred thousand taels for their relief, out of which the firit Li-poo took twenty thousaud ; the fecond, ten thousand; the third, five thousand ; and so on till at laft there remained no more than twenty thousand for the poor sufferers. So we find, that the boafted moral inftitutes of China are not much better observed than those of some other countries; and that the ditciples of Confucius are composed of the same fragile materials as the children of Mammon in the western world.' II. 317-318.
We recommend the following answer to a charge of proselytizing, to the attention of certain well-disposed persons in this island, who have conceived so earnest a desire for the conversion of our Eastern subjects.
• To this I replied, that whatever might be the practice of some Eu. ropeans, the English never attempted to dispute or disturb the worship or tenets of others, being persuaded that the Supreme Governor of the universe was equally pleased with the homage of all bis creatures, when proceeding from fincere devotion, whether according to one mode or allother of the various religions which he permitted to be published; that the English came to China with no such viewe, as was evident from their merchants at Canton and Macao having no priests or chaplains belonging to them, as the other Europeans had; and that lo far from an idea of that kind entering into my mind, or my commission, I had not in my whole train any person of the clerical character, and that it was such persons only, who were employed as the instruments of conversion : that it was true, as stated in the letter, the English had been anciently of the same religion as the Portuguese and the other miffionaries, and had adopted another ; but that one of the principal differences between us and them was our not having the same zeal for making proselytes which they had.' II. p. 327.
We must now make an end of our extracts with giving the following anecdotes illustrative of the skill and proficiency of the Chinese in the useful arts. We omit a most execrable piece of fine writing, which is dashed into the passage, about the soaring nature of the mind; adamants, fibres, spectres, ores and on ther figures,
• Having often observed numbers of blind persons, but never having met a wooden leg, or a deformed limb here, I concluded that good oculifts were very rare, and that death was the usual consequence of a fracture. The viceroy told me I was right in my conjeure; but when I told him of many things in England, and which I had brought people with me to instruct the Chinese in, if it had been allowed, such as the reanimating drowned persons by a mechanical operation, restoring fight to the blind by the extraction or depression of the glaucoma, and repairing and amputating limbs by manual dexterity, both he and his compa. nions seemed as if awakened out of a dream, and could not conceal their regret for the court's coldness and indifference to our discoveries. From thç manner of these gentlemen's inquiries, the remarks which they made, and the iinpressions they seemed to feel, I have conceived a much higher opinion of their liberality and underftanding. Whether in these two respects the minister be really inferior to them, or whether he acts upon a certain public system, which often supersedes private conviction, I know not; but certain it is, that in a conversation with him at Gehol, when I mentioned to him some recent inventions of European ingenuity, particularly that of the air-balloon, and that I had taken care to provide one at Pekin, with a person to go up in it, he not only discouraged that experiment, but most of the others which, from a perusal of all the printed accounts of this country, we had calculated and prepared for the meridian of China. Whatever taste the emperor Cam-bi might have shown for the sciences, as related by the Jesuits in his day, his successors have not inherited it with his other great qualities and possessions ; for it would now seem that the policy and vanity of the court equally concurred in endeavouring to keep out of sight whatever can manifeft our pre-eminence, which they undoubtedly feel, but have not as yet learned to make the proper use of. It is, however, in vain to attempt arretting the progress of human knowledge.-I am indeed very much miftaken, if all the authority and all the address of the Tartar government will be able much longer to fifle the energies of their Chinese subjects. Scarce. ly a year now passes without an insurrection in some of the provinces. It is true, they are usually foon fupprefied; but their frequency is a ftrong symptom of the fever within. The paroxysm is repelled ; but the disease is not cured.' 11. 363-365.
From Canton, the embassy proceeded to Macao; where Lord Macartney falls into that breach of the tenth commandment, so usually committed by Englishmen. Because the possession of that settlement is held by the Portuguese, ? on terms equally useless and degrading to them' (which we should fancy is rather
their own affair than our's), he is for our getting it from them by all means. "If,' says he, they made a difficulty of parting with it to us on fair terms, it might easily be taken from them by a small force from Madras, and the compensation and irregularity be settled afterwards.'-II. p. 396. This monstrous sentiment is so unlike the rest of Lord Macartney's conduct, that we wish his biographer had omitted it, although he found it in his private journal. To publish is rather worse than to write such a thing. Lord Macartney was not bred under a late government at Calcutta; nor had England, in his day, bowed her lofty head to the example of France, in the profligate policy of later times.
journal Tapher hast of Lord P. 396.he.com
ART. IV. Nouvelles Observations sur les Abeilles, adresseés à M. · Charles Bonnet, par François Huber. New Observations on the Natural History of Bees. By Francis Hu
ber. Translated from the original. izmo. pp. 300. J. Anderfon, Edinburgh. Longman & Co. London. 1806.
The natural history of the common bee has been more carefully
examined, and more amply treated of than that of any other of the insect tribe. Yet so complicated and extraordinary are some of the processes of nature, that the most diligent observer3 were long utterly unable to account for fome circumstances in the history of this infeet, and published to the world the most oppofite explanations. Several of the most important and intricate problems, however, seem now to be finally resolved by the Gene. vefe obferver M. Huber, of whole valuable little work we purpose to lay before our readers a pretty full analysis. We regard the facts contained in this volume as extremely important to the natusalift ; for they not only greatly elucidate the history of this wonderful infect, but present some fingular facts in physiology hitherto unknown, and even unfufpected.
For the sake of chose who may never have made bees the particular object of their study, it may not be unacceptable, previously to sketch, in a very few words, the striking outlines of their his tory; and to explain some terms generally employed in treating of them.
A hive contains three kinds of bees. 1. A single queen-bee, distinguishable by the great length of her body, and the propor· tional fhortness of her wings. 2. Working-bees, female non-breed.
ers, or, as they were formerly called, neuters, to the amount of many thoufands: these are the smallest fized bees in the hive, and
derful infecthey nor ons volume est
are armed with a sting. 3. Drones or males, to the number pero haps of 1500 or 2000 : these are larger than the workers, and of a darker colour; they make a greater noise in flying, and have no fting. The whole labour of the community is performed by the workers: they elaborate the wax, and construct the cells; they
collect the honey, and feed the brood. The drones, numerous · as they are, serve no other purpose than to insure the impregna
tion of the few young queens that may be produced in the course of the season ; and they are regularly massacred by the workers in the beginning of autumn.
It is the office of the queen-bee to lay the eggs. These remain about three days in the cells before they are hatched. A small white worm then makes its appearance, (called indifferently worm, larva, maggot or grub): this larva is fed with honey for some days, and then changes into a nymph or pupa. * After passing a certain period in this state, it comes forth a perfect winged insed.
M. Huber sets out with describing the kind of improved glass hive which he employed in his experiments, and which he himself invented. He styles it the leaf-bive or book-hive, (ruche en feuillets, or ruche en livre), from its opening and fhutting somewhat in the manner of the leaves of a book. It confifts of several frames or boxes a foot square, and in width fifteen French lines, or fixteen English, that is, an inch and one third : the boxes are placed parallel to each other, and connected together by hinges. Availing himself of a known instinct in the bees leading them to complete any piece of a comb in the direction in which they find it begun, unless they meet with some insurmountable obstacle ; he placed pieces of comb in each box, in such a position as to in. duce them to build perpendicular to the horizon. The lateral surfaces of the combs were thus only three or four lines distant from the glass panes; and, by opening the different divisions of the hive successively, both surfaces of every comb were, at pleasure, brought fully into view. M. Huber did not experience any difficulty in introducing swarms into these leaf-hives; and he found, that after the lapte of about three days, when the colony was. fairly established, the bees submitted patiently to his daily inspections. Their tranquillity he ascribes, with some probability, to the surprize, and perhaps fear, produced by the sudden admission
* Some authors employ the terms chrysalis and aurelia in speaking of bees, as if they were synonymous with nympba : but a nympb is distinguished by being always rather soft, of a pale or dull colour, and exhibiting the traces of the extremities; while a chrysalis or aurelia is crustaceous, and generally, as implied in the name, of a golden yellow colourg