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trongest desire to do whatever I thought would be most agreeable to the emperor ; but that, being the representative of the first monarch of the western world, his dignity must be the measure of my conduet ; and that in order to reconcile it to the customs of the court of China, I was willing to conform to their etiquette, provided a person of equal rank with mine were appointed to perform the fame ceremony before my sovereign's pi&ture, that I should perform before the emperor himself. The legate hook his head; but Van-ta-gin and Chou-ta-gin faid it was a good expedient, and offered immediately to go through the ceremony themselves on the spot ; but as they had no authority for the purpose, I civilly declined their proposal.' II. 224, 225,

• Tuesday, September ioth. This day the legate Van-td-gin and Chou-la-gin renewed the conversation of yesterday, relative to the cere mony; in the course of which I told them it was not natural to expect that an ambassador should pay greater homage to a foreign prince than to his own liege sovereign, unless a return were made to him that might warrant him to do more. Upon which they asked me, what was the ceremony of presentation to the king of England ? I told them it was performed by kneeling upon one knee, and kiffing his Majesty's hand. Why then, cried they, can't you do so to the emperor? Most readily, faid I ; the fame ceremony I perform to my own king, I am willing to go through for your emperor, and I think it a greater compliment than any other I can pay him. I showed them the manner of it, and they retired seemingly well fatisfied. In the afternoon Chou-ta-gin came to me alone, and said that he had just seen the minister, and had a long conference with him upon this business; the result of which was, that either the English mode of presentation (which I had shows them in the morning), or the picture ceremony should be adopted; but he had not yet decided which. I said nothing.--Soon after the legate arrived, and declared that it was finally determined to adopt the English ceremony; only, that as it was not the custom of China to kiss the emperor's hand, he proposed I should kneel upon both knees instead of it. I told him I had already given my answer, which was to kneel upon one knee only, on those occafions when it is usual for the Chinese to proftrate themselves. Well then, said they, the ceremony of kisling the emperor's hand must be omitted. To this I affented, saying, as you please ; but remember it is your doing, and, according to your propesal, is but half the ceremony: and you see I am willing to perform the whole one. And thus ended this curious negociation, which has given me a tolerable insight into the character of this court, and that political address upon which they so much value themselves.' II. 253, 254.

We pass over the other preparations, and the grand procession into Gehol, which seems greatly to have delighted the worthy ambassador, and to have received the emperor's approbation; and hasten to the ceremony itself of presentation, which may indeed be reckoned the whole sum and substance of the embassage. VOL. II. NO, 22.


• Sacerday, · Saturday, September 14th. This morning at four o'clock A. M. we set out for the court under the convoy of Van-ta-gin and Chou-ta-gin, and reached it in little more than an hour, the distance being about three miles from our hotel. I proceeded in great state with all my train of mufic, guards, &c. Sir George Staunton and I went in palankeens, and the officers and gentlemen of the embassy on horseback. Over a rich embroidered velvet, I wore the mantle of the Order of the Bath with the collar, a diamond badge and a diamond ftar. Sir George Staunton was dressed in a rich embroidered velvet also, and, being a doctor of laws in the vniverfity of Oxford, wore the habit of his degree, which is of fcarlet filk, full and lowing. I mention these little particulars to show the attention I always paid, where a proper opportunity offered, to oriental customs and ideas. We alighted at the park gate, from whence we walked to the imperial encampment, and were conducted to a large handfome tent prepared for us on one fide of the emperor's. After waiting there about an hour, his approach was announced by drums and music, on which we quitted our tent, and came forward upon the green carpet. He was seated in an open palankeen, carried by fixteen bearers, attended by numbers of officers bearing flags, standards, and umbrellas; and, as he passed, we paid him our compliments, by kneeling on one knee, whilft all the Chinese made their usual proftrations. As foon as he had ascended his throne, I came to the entrance of the tent, and, holding in both my hands a large gold box enriched with diamonds, in which was enclofed the king's letter, I walked deliberately up, and, ascending the fide fteps of the throne, delivered it into the emperor's own hands, who, having received it, passed it to the minister, by whom it was placed on the cushion. He then gave me, as the first present from him to his majesty, the ju-eu-jou or giou.giou, as the fymbol of peace and prosperity, and ex pressed his hopes that my sovereign and he should always live in good correspondence and amity. It is a whitish agate-looking fone, about a foot and a half long, curiously carved, and highly prized by the Chinese; but to me it does not appear in itself to be of any great value.

• The emperor then presented me with a ju-cu-jou, of a greenish coloured ftone, and of the same emblematic character ; at the same time he very graciously received from me a pair of beautiful enamelled watches set with diamonds, which I had prepared in consequence of the information given me, and which having looked at, he paffed to the minister.

Sir George Staunton, whom, as he had been appointed minifter ple. nipotentiary to act in cafe of my death or departure, I introduced to him as such, now came forward, and after kneeling on one knee, in the same manner which I had done, presented to him two elegant air guns, and received from him a ju-cu-jou, of greenish ftone, nearly fimilar to mine; other presents were sent at the same time to all the gentlemen of my

train. We then descended from the steps of the throne, and sat down upon cushions at one of the tables on the emperor's left hand; and at other tables, according to their different ranks, the chief Tartar princes; and the Mandarines of the court at the fame time took their places, all dreff


ed in the proper robes of their respective ranks. These tables were then uncovered, and exhibited a sumptuous banquet. The emperor sent us several dishes from his own table, together with some liquors, which the Chinese call wine, not however expressed from the grape, but distilled or extracted from rice, herbs, and honey. In about half an hour he sent for Sir George Staunton and me to come to him, and gave to each of ui; with his own hands, a cup of warm wine, which we immediately drauk in bis presence, and found it very pleasant and comfortable, the morning being cold and raw. Among other things, he asked me the age of my king, and, being informed of it, said he hoped he might live as many years as himself, wbich are eighty-three. His manner is dignified, but affable and condescending, and his reception of us has been very gracious and satisfactory. He is a very fine old gentleman, ftill healthy and vigorous, not having the appearance of a man of more than fixty. The order and regularity in serving and removing the dinner was wonderfully exa&, and every fun&tion of the ceremony performed with such filence and folemnity, as in some measure to resemble the celebration of a religious myftery. The emperor's tent or pavilion, which is circular, I should calculate to be about twenty-four or twenty-five yards in diameter, and is supported by a number of pillars either gilded, painted, or varnished, according to their distance and position. In the front was an opening of fix yards, and from this opening a yellow fly-tent projected, so as to lengthen considerably the space between the entrance and the throne. The materials and distribution of the furniture within at once displayed grandeur and elegance. The tapestry, the curtains, the carpets, the lapthorns, the fringes, the taffels, were disposed with such harmony, the colours fo art fully varied, and the light and shade so judiciously managed, that the whole affemblage filled the eye with delight, and diffused over the mind a pleasing serenity and repose undisturbed by giitter or affected embellishments.

• The commanding feature of the ceremony was that calm dignity, that sober pomp of Afiatic greatness, which European refinements have not yet attained.

I forgot to mention, that there were present on this occasion three ambassadors from Tatzi or Pegu,' and fix Mahomedan ambassadors from the Kalmucks of the south-west : but their appearance was not very splendid. Neither must I omit that, during the ceremony, which lasted five hours, various entertainments of wrestling, tumbling, wire-dancing, together with dramatic representations, were exhibited opposite the tent, but at a confiderable distance from it.

• Thus then have I seen King Solomon in all his glory. I use this expreffion, as the scene recalled perfe&ly to my memory a puppet-fhow of that name, which I recollect to have seen in my childhood, and which made so strong an impreffion on my mind, that I then thought it a true representation of the highest pitch of human greatness and felicity. 'II. 258-261. The descriptions of the superb imperial gardens at Gehol, are X2


ness, when

highly animated and interesting : but they are a great deal too long for either quotation or abstract. Soon after their presentation, attempts were made to enter upon business, but in vain; they were told to wait till the court went to Pekin, whither, indeed, they were themselves speedily ordered to proceed. They had not been long there, when the court followed them; and in a few days, the shortness of their subsequent stay in China, which had repeatedly been hinted at, was more formally unfolded to them, Lord Marcartney had made another attempt at proceeding to busi

• The minifter, with his usual address, avoided entering into any difcoffron of thefe points, which I had taken so much pains to lay befort him, and turned the discourse upon the state of my health, affuring me that the emperor's proposal for my departure arose chiefly from his anxiety about it; for that otherwise my ftay could not but be agrecable to him.

• Although from the course of the conversation, and from the deporte ment of the minister and his two affeffors, I was led to draw rather an unfavourable inference relative to my bufiness, yet when I rose to take leave, nothing could be more gracious, or more lattering, than the expre! fions which he made use of to me upon the occasion, in so much that my interpreter congratulated me on the fair prospect of my negociation, and said that he expected the happiest iffue from it. Nevertheless, fince my return home, I have received two different communications, by which i am informed, that the emperoro answer to the king's letter is already prepared, and sent to be tranflated into Latin from the Chinese. This, I find, is an infallible indication of the court's intentions, and as a signal for us to take our leave. I am afraid that there is good ground for my apprehenfion, as Van-ta-gin and Chou-ta.gin, who have just been here, tell me that I shall have a message from the minister to meet him tö-niorrow at the palace. They say, that the emperor's letter for the king will probally be the delivered to me (for they pretend not to know certainly that it will), in which case, they advise me to ask permission to depart without delay. I suppose they have been directed to hold this difcourse to me.'--11. 299.

A few more suggestions were given next day; and, in short, they were so pressed from different quarters, that it was absolutely necessary they should demand leave to set out, in order to prevent some still broader and coarser hints.' It was immediately granted, and they began their journey on the 7th October. The account of this journey is very interesting.

The following passage does not certainly confirm the high notions which fanciful writers have conceived of the Chinese administration.

• In the course of conversation, they said that, including all the yachts, baggage-boats, and those of the attending Mandarines, there


were forty vessels employed on our present expedition, and upwards of a thousand persons attached to this service. That the emperor allows five thousand taels per day (each tael equal to 6s. 8d.) for defraying the expense of it; and that, if that fum should fall short, it must be levied on the provinces we pass through. That one thousand five hundred tacls per day were allotted for the expense of our residence at Pekin, aud that they were scarcely sufficient. Although the maintenance of the embassy must have undoubtedly been very considerable, I can by no means conceive it in any degree adequate to so large an amount. That it has been fully charged to the emperor is highly probable ; but between the money charged, and the money actually expended, I understand there is usually a very material difference ; for, though the emperor's warrant may be ligned for a great sum, yet the checks of office, as they are called, are so numerous and so burdensome, that before it arrives at its last stage, it is almost sweated to nothing. I remember Chou-ta-gir telling me one day, as an intrance of this, that an inundation in the courfe of last year had swept away a village in the province of Chane, tong so suddenly, that the inhabitants could save nothing but their lives. The emperor (who, from having formerly hunted there, was well acquainted with the place) immediately ordered one hundred thousand taels for their relief, out of which the first Li.poo took twenty thousand; the second, ten thousand; the third, five thousand; and so on till at last there remained no more than twenty thousand for the poor sufferers. So we find, that the boafted moral inftitutes of China are not much better observed than those of some other countries; and that the disciples of Confucius are composed of the fame fragile materials as the children of Mammon in the western world.' II. 317-318.

We recommend the following answer to a charge of proselytizing, to the attention of certain well-disposed persons in this island, who have conceived so earnest a desire for the conversion of our Eastern subjects.

• To this I replied, that whatever might be the practice of some Europeans, the English never attempted to dispute or disturb the worship or tenets of others, being persuaded that the Supreme Governor of the universe was equally plealed with the homage of all bis creatures, when proceeding from lincere devotion, whether according to one mode or another of the various religions which he permitted to be published; that the English came to China with no fuch views, as was evident from their merchants at Canton and Macao having no priests or chaplains belonging to them, as the other Europeans had ; and that so far from an idea of that kind entering into my mind, or my commiffion, I had not in my whole train any person of the clerical character, and that it was such persons only, who were employed as the inftruments of conversion ; that it was true, as stated in the letter, the English had been anciently of the same religion as the Portuguese and the other missionaries, and had adopted another, but that one of the principal differences between us and them was our not having the same zeal for making profelytes which they bad.' Il. p. 327.

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