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them, like the camel, and give themselves up to the reveries of coffee and tobacco. To eoliven the scene, tellers of stories resort hither, and with ludicrous gestures and grimaces cheat the grave Turks into a smile, raising their ponderous mustachios as it were in spite of them. To imi. tate the staggering and stuttering of a drunken man is a never failing source of merriment, which is sometimes changed for the Thriller voice and the gait of a woman, or the crying of a child. Having finished the tale, they beat a little tainbourine, and go round the audience, like the flave of Ali Baba, collecting in it the paras (a small coin), which if their story has been well told are liberally bestowed. The representation of human life and manners will always be interesting to man; and the stage is founded on principles and feelings common to all nations. Where laws or superftitions interfere to prevent a close representation, men will Mill make as near approaches as possible. The relators of ftories are the actors of the Turks, and coffee-houses are iheir theatres. , Caravan Bridge is the theatre of Smyrna ; and Aristotle himself, were he to rise from the dead, could not criticise the unity of the scene which, whether it be tragedy or comedy, a battle or a marriage, the fighing of a despairing lover, or the roarings of a drunken Frank, is ever and still the same, a pond, a one arched bridge, and a burying ground.' II. 203-206.

Immediately after this, however, which is not badly executa ed, follows one of the sentimental flights in which Mr Semple now and then indulges. He falls into a melancholy musing, about the degraded state of man in those fine countries, and be moans his own lot, in being quite unable to relieve the species. So far it is well and natural enough; but he proceeds to drown his sorrows in wine, and actually gets drunk before his readers, after the following manner. I will be a Greek,' he cries, and as I see no Turk near me, I will bury all my woes in momentary oblivion.' 'Adieu ! (continues he,) dreams for the happiness of my brother men, why should they make me unhappy ? Give me wine, that I may forget my wretchedness.' As the wine mounts up, its effects begin to be apparent, and he calls aloud for more. Give me wine, whether it be of Scio or Mytelene, that I may plunge into delirious joy,' &c. &c. If we had not giver our readers specimens of Mr Semple’s sober productions, they would be inclined, from this exposure, to question the justice of the commendations which we bestow upon his book. It is, however, fair to add, that, whether from sleep, or froin drinking deeper, he very soon becomes ó sobered again,' and delivers, at some length, an excellent character of the Turks and Greeks. As this is really a sketch of considerable merit, we shall conclude our extracts by giving a part of it.

· If two llout Greeks be fighting in the strect, a Turk comes between them, pushes each a different way; and adds kicks and blows, thould they still linger near each other. They look upon 15e life of an TOL. XI. NO. 21.

Infidel

[graphic]

Infidel as of little more value than that of a brute ; and indeed do not seem to estimate their own at a very high rate. They have some traits of the true military character ; are foud of horses and arms; and dete i the sea. They delight in the pop, and coise, and glitter, of war; and they can blind themselves for a short time in the hour of battle to its dangers; but its incessant fatigues foon dishearten them; and al. though they insult the Christians at Conitantinople and Smyrna, they have learnt to tremble before them on the banks of the Danube, and the borders of the Euxine. This, then, betrays the whole secret of their haughtiness. It is founded on the conquests of their remote ancestors, not on their own tried strength.

• In a word, deluded by the semblance of war, and really enervated by lon,; habits of peace, and by a religion, the rewards of which are en. tirely fenfual, the Turk is willing to have a foretaste in this world of the cooling shades, the pure running streams, the soft Numbers, and the Hoyris of Paradise. Tents adorned with fringes, horses gaily capari. soned, and splendid armas, ferve only to wake him gently from these luxurious dreams, that he may fall to slumber again with a better relite and dream that he is a soldier. So much of war as confiits in that, he does not dislike. But long and tedious marches, painful wounds, above all, the profound study and science of war, are wholly unsuited to his temper, at once impetuous and indolent. Where it is poffible by a single violent exertion to obtain his end, the Turk may fucceed; but disappointed in that first effort, he retires like the tyger who has milled his spring, and requires a long loterval of repose to recruit his scattered ferocity.

• The radical and incurable defects of the Turkish character proceed in my opinion from their religion. All attempts of a legislature to de. fine exactly, not merely what is vice and what is virtue, but also the daily and hourly duties of the man and the citizen, may form a peculiar and separate people, a nation of Jews or of Turks; but, once formed, that nation remains for ever incapable of improvement. Such is the de. fect of the Koran. Its simple precepts, its strict prohibitions, were well calculated to bind together the wandering tribes of the Desert, but be. come too minute in some instances, and too desultory in others, when considered as the sole code of laws for an immense empire. Swathing cluthes may Itrengthen the child, but, if not timely removed, effectually prevent its becoming a man. Mohammed fixed at once the moral limits of bis people. He sketched no faint outline ; but, on the contrary, marked it with so strong a hand, that the line of distinction is for ever drawn, not merely between the Turk and the Christian, but between the Turk and the philosopher. It is impoffible to be a true Mussulman and a lover and cultivator of those arts and sciences which adorn and exalt mankind. The Koran must be laid aside before the sources of real knowledge can be opened. The Englishman, the Gaul, the German, and the Russian, may each preserve the characteristic manners and customs of his country, and be a Christian; but the Jew or the Turk must be absolutely the same in all climates.' II. p. 214–217.

The

The description of the Greeks is executed in a more ambitious style, but is also very well done. .

* It is impossible to survey their present condition without pity, or their character without some contempt. Like their ancestors, they are. Atill fond of throwing the disc or quoit ; like them, the olive still forms a material article of their food. But the pleasing delusion can be car. ried no further. On longer and closer intimacy, he finds the modern Greek smooth but deceitful; boasting but cowardly; vain yet abject, and cringing under the most insulting tyranny, light and capricious without invention ; talkative without information ; and equally bigoted with the Spaniard or Italian, but without the same real warmth of devotion to excuse it.

• There is no doubt but that the glories of his ancestors ferve, by the contrast, to render his vices more prominent. Had we not been early taught to admire Grecian courage, wisdom, and talents, we might look upon the meanness of the present race with less emotion. But who can think, without regret, that the descendants of the conquerors of Marathon are cowards and Naves; that for so many centuries not a fingle poet has arisen in the country of Homer ; and that the place of Plato and the Philosophers is supplied by ignorant prietts; and of their scholars, by a still more ignorant people ? The Greeks of this day present, in their moral character, the same spectacle as that of a man to whom Heaven has granted the doubtful blessing of very long life. But however debased in a moral point of view, the Greeks still retain much of what we may suppose to have been their former physical character. Few amongst them are deformed or ugly; but, on the contrary, those from the Morea and the weltern islands of the Archipelago are in general remarkably stout, with broad shoulders and thick necks ; whilst those of the other islands, and from Conftantinople, Smyrna, and the coasts of Afia, supply by the elegance what is deficient in the strength of their make. Their phyfiognomies are expressive, but still less so than those of the Turks ; and the women, when young, are generally beau. tiful and sprightly, but their beauty is of short duration. They are fond of wearing flowers on their head; and a robe fitting close to the body, and flowing loose behind, forms the Afiatic part of their dress; the remainder being very similar to that used by women in England or France. The men dress in short jackets and vests, with loose trowsers which come just below the knee ; and the common people, like the Turks, have the legs bare, with only a pair of slippers on the feet. They feldom Thave the upper lip ; which, with their bufay hair, and a little red cap on the crown of their heads, serves often to give them a wild look, but never a dignified or martial air.

• Even Turkish oppression, however, cannot entirely destroy the naa tural cheerfulness of their dispositions, inspired by the fine climate under which they live. They are fond of songs and dancing, and there are few, even of their smallest vessels, which have not on board at least one musician, furnished with a {mall violin or rebeck, and sometimes the

Spanila

Spanish guitar. Upon these, when becalmed amongst the islands, or failing with light breezes along the coast of Greece, they play wild, and often not unpleasing airs ; and when a favourite tune is touched, the mariners join their voices in concert. The first part of the English tune of « God save the King, " is very popular with the Greeks at Smyrna ; but the second is either beyond their abilities, or not suited to their taste. It is said, indeed, that they feldom retain the second part of any European tune. ' II. 218–222.

From Smyrna our author went to Constantinople, where he made but a short stay, and then returned to England by sea.

We cannot close this article, without once more recommending Mr Semple's work to the attention of our readers, and returning our thanks to that gentleman himself for the pleasure we have received in accompanying him on his tour. It will give us great satisfaction to meet him again and join his party, as soon as his avocations may lead him to set out upon another excursion into foreign parts.

ART. VII. A short Inquiry into the Policy, Humanity, and past:

Effects of the Poor Laws. By one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Three Inland Counties. 8vo. London. 1807.

TITHOUT meaning to derogate from the importance of those

V political laws by which civil liberty is secured, we may be permitted to observe, that mankind have generally appeared a little too fearful of the tyranny of their rulers, and somewhat too indifferent about their ignorance. With respect to the leading objects of civil liberty, this may, perhaps, be right. It requires no great depth of thought to provide against the undisguised outrages of despotism; and accordingly, where the spirit of freedom lias prevailed, legislators have been generally successful in devising effectual securities for the enjoyment of those privileges which are essential to freedom. In the more delia cate arrangements of internal policy, 'however, ignorance may be fully as mischievous as bad intention; it is of little importance that legislators are elected according to the forms of a free cona stitution, if they do not know how to direct their power to the only proper and rational end, the happiness of the people; and as a statesman, whose mind is enlightened with liberal notions of policy, can have no imaginable motive to withhold from mankind the benefits of his wisdom, the welfare of the people may, in many important points, be more successfully promoted under an absolute government, where the legislators are well in.

structed,

structed, than under a free government, where they are igălorant or incapable. It is a very great mistake to ascribe all the miseries of mankind to malignant abuses of power; a very great portion of the mischief which has resulted from misgovernment, may be referred to the injudicious attempts of their rulers to ameliorate their condition. The schemes of Frederic of Prussia, and of Joseph of Austria, for the encouragement of commerce, were singularly pernicious and absurd, and produced, undoubtedly, a great deal of individual distress; yet, it cannot be doub:ed, that their intentions were to encourage commerce, although it would have been much for the advantage of their subjects that they had exercised a less watchful superintendance over their concerns. In endeavouring also to provide a decent subsistence for the poor, the English legislature, with the most benevolent anxiety for their welfare, are generally acknowledged to have aggravated their misery, instead of having relieved it. The mis ; chiefs which their ill-judged efforts have brought upon society, clearly show the importance of that science, which professes not so much to benefit mankind by exhibiting for their choice perfect patterns of political constitutions, as by enlightening those who administer the systems that are established. There is no doubt that the authors of the English poor laws were actuated by the purest and most upright intentions; and yet the practical evil which has flowed from their erring benevolence, has scarcely fallen short of what tyrants have contrived to accomplish.

The present publication seems to have originated in the best intentions, and if we had nothing to do but with the design and motives of the work, we should feel it to be our duty to bestow on it unqualified praise. The author frequently displays a very laudable anxiety for the welfare of the poor; he seems to have bestowed no common attention on the subject; and we can only lament, that his zeal (at least as far as this performance is concerned) should have been so unproîtably directed. His views on the poor laws, and on all the great questions connected with that important subject, are wild and impracticable, founded entirely on narrow notions, or exploded errors; and the projects of reformation which he recommends, would infallibly aggravate the evils which they are intended to remedy, by adding to that mass of paltry devices and artificial regulations by which the great arrangements of society are already too much obstructed. Although we must do him the justice to say, that his mind is not tainted with any illiberal antipathy to Mr Malthus, yet he appears to have perused his work with a predetermined resolution to misunderstand his views. We really scarcely can refrain fro:11 sympathizing with that eminent philosopher, who, though he he

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