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the will of God, I may have a prosperous journey, so as to come to you. 11 For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift, that ye may be established: 12 which is, that I may be jointly comforted among you through our mutual faith, the faith of both you and me.

13 But I would not have you 'ignorant, brethren, that I have often purposed to come to you, (but have been hitherto hindered) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the other nations. 14 I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the barbarians; both to the wise and to the unwise. 15 So then, as much as lieth in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome. 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one who believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 17 For thereby God's method of justification* from faith to faith is revealed; as it is written, "Now the just, through faith, shall live."

18 FOR the anger of God is revealed from heaven, against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who conceal the truth in unrighteousness 19 for what may be known of God, is manifest among them; for God hath manifested it to them; 20 for, from the creation

of the world, the invisible things of Him are clearly perceived, being understood by the things which are made; even his eternal power and provi. dence: † so that they are inexcusable, 21 because, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, nor gave him thanks; but became vain in their reasonings, and their inconsiderate heart was darkened: 22 professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things.

24 Wherefore God [also] gave them up to uncleanness, through the desires of their hearts, that their bodies should be dishonoured amongst themselves; 25 who changed the truth concerning God into a lie, and worshipped, and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed to the ages. Amen. 26 For this cause, God gave them up to vile passions: for even their women changed the natural use, into that which is against nature; 27 and in like manner, the men also, left the natural use of the women, and burned in their desire one towards another; men working unseemliness with men, and receiving amongst themselves the due recompense of their error. 28 And as they

"The original word is often used by St. Paul for God's treating men as just or righteous; whether by admitting them into the outward privileges of the christian church here, or inte his heavenly kingdom hereafter." Newcome.

+"See Mr. Lindsey's Second Address, p. 278. The expression, "godhead," used in the com mon version, and adopted by Newcome, is liable to be misunderstood." Im. Ver. note,

did not approve of retaining and righteous judgment of God? God in their knowledge, God 6 who will render to every one gave them up to a reprobate according to his works: 7 to mind, to do those things which those who, by patient continuwere not fit: 29 being filled ance in good works, seek for with all iniquity, maliciousness, glory, and honour, and incorcovetousness, wickedness; full ruption, aionian life: 8 but of envy, murder, strife, deceit, upon those who are contentious, malignity; whisperers, 30 evil- and obey not the truth, but speakers, haters of God; inju- obey unrighteousness, there rious, proud; boasters, inven- shall be wrath and anger, 9 tritors of evil things, disobedient bulation and distress; even upon to parents; 31 without con- every soul of man who doth sideration, covenant-breakers, evil, of the Jew first, and also without natural affection, [im- of the Greek; 10 but glory, and placable,] without pity: 32 who honour, and peace, to every though they knew the righ-one who doth good, to the Jew teous ordinance of God, (that first, and also to the Greek. those who commit such things are worthy of death,) not only do them, but even have pleasure in those who do them.

11 For with God there is no respect of persons. 12 For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without law; and as many as have sinned under law will be judged by law; 13 (for not the hearers of the law will be just before God; but the doers of [the] law, they will be justified: 14 for when the gentiles, who have not a law, do, by nature, the things contained in the law, these, not having a law, are a law to themselves: 15 who show forth the works of the law, written in their hearts; their conscience witnessing with them, and their reasonings between themselves accusing or else excusing each other): 16 in the day when God will judge the secret things of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

17 But if thou be called a Jew, and rest in [the] law, and glory in God, 18 and know his will, and discern the things that

CH. II. 1 WHEREFORE thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art, who judgest : for, wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou who judgest dost the same things. 2 But we know that the condemnation of God is according to truth, against those who do such things. 3 And thinkest thou this, O man, who judgest those who do such things, and yet dost them, that thou shalt escape the condemnation of God? 4 or despisest thou the riches of his kindness, and of his forbearance, and long-suffering; not knowing that the kindness of God leadeth thee to a reformation? 5 and, after thy perverseness and unrepenting heart, treasurest thou up to thyself anger against the day of anger, and the manifestation

are excellent, being instructed out of the law; 19 and be confident that thou thyself art a CH. III. 1 "WHAT advanguide of the blind, a light to tage then hath the Jew? or those who are in darkness, 20 what is the benefit of circumcian instructer of the unwise, a sion?" 2 "Much every way: teacher of babes, having the but chiefly, because to the Jews form of knowledge and of the were committed the oracles of truth in the law; 21 thou who God. 3 For what if some had teachest another, teachest thou not faith? shall their want of not thyself? thou who preach- faith make the faithfulness of est that a man should not God without effect? 4 By no steal, dost thou steal? 22 thou means: yea, let God be true, who sayest, a man should not but every man a liar as it is commit adultery, dost thou written; That thou mightest commit adultery? thou who be justified in thy words, and abhorrest idols, dost thou com- mightest overcome when thou mit sacrilege? 23 thou who art judged.' 5 But if our gloriest in the law, through the unrighteousness enhance the breaking of the law dishonour-righteousness of God"—"What est thou God? 24 (For" the shall we say? Is God unrighte name of God is evil spoken of ous who inflicteth punishment? among the gentiles, through | (I speak according to the manyou;" as it is written.) ner of men.) 6 By no means: for then how shall God judge the world." 7" For if the truth of God hath abounded to his glory, through my unfaithfulness, why am I still condemned as a sinner?" 8 "And why say ye not, (as it is slanderously spoken of us, and as some affirm we say,) 'Let us do evil, that good may come?' whose condemnation is just."

25 For circumcision profiteth indeed, if thou keepest the law: but if thou art a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision becometh uncircumcision. 26 If therefore the uncircumcision keep the righteous ordinances of the law, shall not the uncircumcision of such be counted for circumcision? 27 and shall not the uncircumcision which by nature fulfilleth the law, condemn thee as a transgressor of law, though a Jew by the literal circumcision?

28 For he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly; nor is that circumcision, which is outward, in the flesh: 29 but he is a Jew, who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not according

to the letter: whose praise is not from men, but from God,

9 What then? do we excel the gentiles? No, surely for we have before brought a charge against Jews and gentiles,* that they are all under sin: 10 as it is written, "There is none righteous, no, not one: 11 there is none [that] understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. 12 They are all gone out

1

Gr. Greeks.

of the way, they are altogether | fied of free bounty, even by his become worthless : there is favour, through the redemption none that doth good, no not which is by Christ Jesus; 25 even one. 13 Their throat is whom God hath set forth as a like an open sepulchre; with mercy seat, [through faith,] in their tongues they have used his own blood;* to show his deceit; the poison of asps is method of justification, concernunder their lips: 14 their ing the remission of past sins, mouth is full of cursing and through the forbearance of bitterness: 15 their feet are God; 26 to show his method of swift to shed blood: 16 de-justification at this present struction and misery are in time: that he might be just, their ways; 17 and the way of when justifying him who is of peace they have not known: 18 the faith [of Jesus]. there is no fear of God before their eyes." 19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to those who are under the law: so that - every mouth may be stopped, and all the world become subject to the judgment of God. 20 For by the works of law: no one can be justified in his sight: for through law is the knowledge of sin.

27 Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No: but by the law of faith. 28 For we conclude that man is justified through faith, without the works of law. 29 Is God the God of the Jews only? is he not of the gentiles also? Yes; of the gentiles also: 30 since there is one God, who will justify those of the circumcision by faith, and those of the uncircumcision through faith. 31 Do we then make void law through faith? By no means: yea, we establish law.

21 But now, God's method of justification, without a law, is manifested; being attested by the law and the prophets; 22 even God's method of justification through faith in Jesus Christ, unto all, [and upon all, who believe for there is no difference: 23 for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 24 being justi

CH. IV. 1 WHAT advantage then, shall we say, Abraham, our father as to the flesh, found? 2 For if Abraham was justified by works he hath whereof to boast:" "but not before God. 3 For what saith

"The words dia #IOTEws through faith; are omitted in the Alexandrian and some other manuscripts, and they obscure the sense. The apostle represents Christ as a mercy-seat, consecrated by his own blood; upon which the goodness of God, as it were, takes its stand, and declares his gracious purposes and dispensations to mankind. See Locke; and Taylor's judicious note upon the text. The word inaσrnglov never signifies" propitiation," as it is translated in the common version; but it is always used wherever it occurs, both in the Old Testament and the New, to express the mercy-seat; which was the golden lid of the ark upon which the Shechinah or cloud of glory rested, and from which oracles were dispensed. See Exod. xxv. 22; Numb. vii. 8,9; Lev. xvii. 2; Heb. ix. 5. It must be evident to every unprejudiced person, that this beautiful allusion of the apostle, which is intended to represent Christ as the messenger of divine mercy, and the medium of divine communications to mankind, gives no countenance to the commonly received doctrine of atonement by vicarious suffering; though many lay great Im. Ver. Note. stress upon this text, misled by the common translation."

the scripture? Abraham be- or to his offspring, that he should be heir of the world, but through a righteousness of faith.

lieved God; and it was counted to him for righteousness.' 4 Now to him who worketh, the| reward is not counted a matter of favour, but of debt. 5 But to him who worketh not, but believeth in Him who justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. 6 As David also describeth the happiness of the man to whom God counted righteousness without works; 7 saying, 'Happy are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered: 8 happy is the man to whom the L will not count sin.""

14 For if those who are under a law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of none effect; 15 because law produceth punishment: for where no law is, there is no transgression. 16 Therefore righteousness is from faith, that it might be through favour; so that the promise might be sure to all the offspring, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 (as it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,') in the sight of that God whom he believed, who giveth life to the dead, and calleth those things which are not, as though they were. 18 He, contrary to hope, believed with hope, so that he became the father of many nations; according to that which was spoken, 'Thus shall thine offspring be: 19 and because he was not weak in faith; he considered [not] his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, nor the deadness of Sarah's womb: 20 nor did he stagger at the promise of God, through unbelief; but was strong in faith, and gave glory to God; 21 and was fully persuaded, that what God had promised, he was also able to perform.

cumcised. 13 Besides, not 22 Wherefore Abraham's through a righteousness of law, faith was counted to him for the promise was to Abraham, righteousness. 23 Yet it was

9 Cometh this happiness then upon those of the circumcision only, or upon those of uncircumcision also? For we say that faith was counted to Abraham for righteousness. 10 How then was it counted? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness arising from the faith which he had, being yet uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all those who believe, though in a state of uncircumcision, that righteousness might be counted to them also; 12 and the father of circumcision to those who are not of the circumcision only, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had, being yet uncir

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