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of Mr. Richard Hooker, in which there was no mention made of the King or supreme governors being accountable to the people. This I will make oath, that that good man attested to me.

Fabian Philips."* So that there appears to be both omissions and additions in the said last Three printed books: and this may probably be one reason why Dr. Sanderson, the said learned Bishop,—whose writings are so highly and justly valued, -gave a strict charge near the time of his death, or in his last Will, “ That nothing of his that was not already printed, should be printed after his death."

It is well known how high a value our learned King James put upon the books writ by Mr. Hooker; and known also that our late King Charles—the Martyr for the Church-valued them the second of all books, testified by his commending them to the reading of his son Charles, that now is our gracious King: and you may suppose that this Charles the First was not a stranger to the Three pretended books, because, in a discourse with the Lord Say, in the time of the Long Parliament, when the said Lord required the King to grant the truth of his argument, because it was the judgment of Mr. Hooker,quoting him in one of the three written books, the King replied, “ They were not allowed to be Mr. Hooker's books: but, however, he would allow them to be Mr. Hooker's, and consent to what his Lordship proposed to prove out of those doubtful books, if he would but consent to the judgment of Mr. Hooker, in the other five, that were the undoubted books of Mr. Hooker.”

In this relation concerning these Three doubtful books of Mr. Hooker's, my purpose was to enquire, then set down what I observed and know; which [ have done, not as an engaged person, but indifferently; and now leave my Reader to give sentence, for their legitimation, as to himself; but so as to leave others the same liberty of believing, or disbelieving them to be Mr. Hooker's: and 'tis observable, that as Mr. Hooker advised with Dr. Spencer, in the design and manage of these books; so also, and chiefly, with his dear pupil, George Cranmer,—whose sister was the wife of Dr. Spencer—of which this following letter may be a testimony, and doth also give authority to some things mentioned both in this Appendix and in the Life of Mr. Hooker, and is therefore added.

I. W.

* A Barrister of eminence, particularly noted for his loyalty, born at Prestbury in Glou. cestershire, in 1601. He died in 1690; and was the Author of several excellent Law Tracts, as well as one asserting that Charles I. was a martyr for his people.

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GEORGE CRANMER'S

LETTER UNTO MR. RICHARD HOCKER,

FEBRUARY, 1598. *

What posterity is likely to judge of these matters concerning Church-disci. pline, we may the better conjecture, if we call to mind what our own age, within few years, upon better experience, hath already judged concerning the same. It may be remembered, that at first, the greatest part of the learned in the land were either eagerly affected, or favourably inclined that way. The books then written for the most part savoured of the disciplinary style ; it sounded every where in pulpits, and in common phrase of men's speech. The contrary part began to fear they had taken a wrong course ; many which impugned the discipline, yet so impugned it, not as not being the better form of government, but as not being so convenient for our state, in regard of dangerous innovations thereby likely to grow: one mant alone there was to speak of, —whom let no suspicion of flattery deprive of his deserved commendationwho, in the defiance of the one part, and courage of the other, stood in the gap and gave others respite to prepare themselves to the defence, which, by the sudden eagerness and violence of their adversaries, had otherwise been prevented, wherein God hath made good unto him his own impress, Vincit qui patitur : for what contumelious indignities he hath at their hands sustained, the world is witness; and what reward of honour above his adversaries God hath bestowed upon him, themselves—though nothing glad thereof,-must needs confess. Now of late years the heat of men towards the discipline is greatly decayed; their judgments begin to sway on the other side ; the learned nave weighed it, and found it light; wise men conceive some fear, lest it prove not only not the best kind of government, but the very bane and destruction of all government. The cause of this change in men's opinions may be drawn from the general nature of error, disguised and clothed with the name of truth; which did mightily and violently possess men at first, but afterwards, the weakness thereof being by time discovered, it lost that reputation, which before it had gained. As by the outside of an house the passers-by are oftentimes deceived, till they see the conveniency of the rooms within ; so, by the

* This admirable dissertation originally appeared in 1642, entitled “Concerning the New Church I)iscipline; an excellent Letter written by Mr. George Cranmer, to Mr. R. H."

T John Whitgift, the Archbishop.

very name of discipline and reformation, men were drawn at first to cast a fancy towards it, but now they have not contented themselves only to pass by and behold afar off the fore-front of this reformed house; they have entered in, even at the special request of the master-workmen and chief-builders thereof: they have perused the rooms, the lights, the conveniences, and they find them not answerable to that report which was made of them, nor to that opinion which upon report they had conceived: so as now the discipline, which at first triumphed over all, being unmasked, beginneth to droop, and hang down her head.

The cause of change in opinion concerning the discipline is proper to the learned, or to such as by them have been instructed. Another cause there is inore open, and more apparent to the view of all, namely, the course of practice, which the Reformers have had with us from the beginning. The first degree was only some small difference about the cap and surplice; but not such as either bred division in the Church, or tended to the ruin of the government established. This was peaceable ; the next degree more stirring. Admonitions were directed to the Parliament in peremptory sort against our whole form of regiinent. In defence of them, volumes were published in English and in Latin : yet this was no more than writing. Devices were set on foot to erect the practice of the discipline without authority; yet herein some regard of modesty, some moderation was used. Behold at length it brake forth into open outrage, first in writing by Martin ;* in whose kind of dealing these things may be observed : 1. That whereas Thomas Cartwright and others his great masters, had always before set out the discipline as a Queen, and as the daughter of God; he contrariwise, to make her more acceptable to the people, brought her forth as a Vicet upon the stage. 2. This conceit of his was grounded—as may be supposed-upon this rare policy, that seeing the discipline was by writing refuted, in Parliament rejected, in secret corners hunted out and decried, it was imagined that by open railing,—which to the vulgar is commonly most plausible,—the State Ecclesiastical might have been drawn into such contempt and hatred, as the overthrow thereof should have been most grateful to all men, and in a manner desired by all the common people. 3. It may be noted—and this I know myself to be true-how some of them, although they could not for shame approve so lewd an action, yet were content to lay hold on it to the advancement of their cause, by acknowledging therein the secret judgments of God against the Bishops, and hoping that some good might be wrought thereby for his Church; as indeed there was, though not according to their construction. For 4thly, contrary to their expectation, that railing spirit did not only not further, but extremely dis

* Gregory Martin, born at Maxfield near Winchelsea, admitted of St. John's Coll. Oxford, 1557, embraced the Roman Catholic Religion and was ordained priest at Douay, 1573. The Rheims translation of the Vulgate has been ascribed entirely to him. He died at Rheims in 1582.

† Vice was the fool of the old moralities, with his dagger of lath, a long coat, and a cap with a pair of ass's ears. PART II.

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grace and prejudice their cause, when it was once perceived from how low degrees of contradiction, at first, to what outrage of contumely and slander, they were at length proceeded : and were also likely to proceed further.

A further degree of outrage was also in fact: certain* prophets did arise, who deeming it not possible that God should suffer that to be undone, which they did so fiercely desire to have done, namely, that his holy saints, the favourers and fathers of the discipline, should be enlarged, and delivered from persecution; and seeing no means of deliverance ordinary, were fain to persuade themselves that God must needs raise some extraordinary means; and being persuaded of none so well as of themselves, they forthwith must needs be the instruments of this great work. Hereupon they framed unto themselves an assured hope, that, upon their preaching out of a peascart in Cheapside, all the multitude would have presently joined unto them, and in amazement of mind have asked them, Viri fratres, quid agimus ? whereunto it is likely they would have returned an answer far unlike to that of St. Peter : “ Such and such are men unworthy to govern; pluck them down: such and such are the dear children of God ; let them be advanced.”

Of two of these men it is meet to speak with all commiseration ; yet so, that others by their example may receive instruction, and withal some light may appear, what stirring affections the discipline is like to inspire, if it light upon apt and prepared minds.

Now if any man doubt of what society they were; or if the Reformers disclaim them, pretending that by them they were condemned ; let these points be considered. 1. Whose associates were they before they entered into this frantic passion ? Whose sermons did they frequent? Whom did they adinire ? 2. Even when they were entering into it, Whose advice did they require ? and when they were in, Whose approbation? Whom advertised they of their purpose? Whose assistance by prayer did they request? But we deal injuriously with them to lay this to their charge ; for they reproved and condemned it. How! did they disclose it to the Magistrate, that it might be suppressed? or were they not rather content to stand aloof off, and see the end of it, as being loath to quench that spirit? No doubt these mad practitioners were of their society, with whom before, and in the practice of their madness, they sad most affinity. Hereof read Dr. Bancroft's book.t

A third inducement may be to dislike of the discipline, if we consider not only how far the Reformers themselves have proceeded, but what others upon their foundations have built. Here come the Brownistst in the first rank,

* Hacket and Coppinger.

† Entitled “ A Survey of the pretended holy Discipline, to which is prefixed a Sermon, preached against the Puritans, at St. Paul's Cross, Feb. 9, 1588-9, from the following text: * Dearly beloved, believe not every Spirit, but try the Spirits whether they be of God, for many false Prophets have gone out into the world.' 1 John, iv. 1."

| Robert Brown, a person of a good family in Rutlandshire, educated at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge, was the founder of a sect of Puritans who took their name from him. He wrote several tracts in support of his opinions, and sustained various persecu

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their lineal descendants, who have seized upon a number of strange opinions ; whereof, although their ancestors, the Reformers, were never actually possessed, yet, by right and interest from them derived, the Brownists and Barrowists* have taken possession of them: for if the positions of the Reformers be true, I cannot see how the main and general conclusions of Brownism should be false ; for upon these two points, as I conceive, they stand. 1. That, because we have no Church, they are to sever themselves from

2. That without Civil authority they are to erect a Church of their own. And if the former of these be true, the latter, I suppose, will follow: for if above all things men be to regard their salvation; and if out of the Church there be no salvation; it followeth, that, if we have no Church, we have no means of salvation ; and therefore separation from us in that respect is both lawful and necessary, as also, that men, so separated from the false and counterfeit Church, are to associate themselves unto some Church; not to ours; to the Popish much less; therefore to one of their own making. Now the ground of all these inferences being this, That in our Church there is no means of salvation, is out of the Reformer's principles most clearly to be proved. For wheresoever any matter of faith unto salvation necessary is denied, there can be no means of salvation ; but in the Church of England, the discipline, by them accounted a matter of faith, and necessary to salvation, is not only denied, but impugned, and the professors thereof oppressed. Ergo.

Again,—but this reason perhaps is weak,—every true Church of Christ acknowledgeth the whole Gospel of Christ: the discipline, in their opinion, is a part of the Gospel, and yet by our Church resisted. Ergo.

Again, the discipline is essentially united to the Church : by which term essentially, they must mean either an essential part, or an essential property. Both which ways it must needs be, that where that essential discipline is not, neither is there any Church. If therefore between them and the Brownists there should be appointed a solemn disputation, whereof with us they have been oftentimes so earnest challengers; it doth not yet appear what other answer they could possibly frame to these and the like arguments, wherewith they may be pressed, but fairly to deny the conclusion,—for all the premises are their own-or rather ingeniously to reverse their own principles before laid, whereon so foul absurdities have been so firmly built. What further proofs you can bring out of their high words, magnifying the discipline, I leave to your better remembrance: but, above all points, I am desirous this one should

tions, having been committed at different times to thirty-two prisons, in some of hich he could not see his hand at broad day. Before his removal with his followers to Middleburg in Zealand, he became disgusted with their divisions and disputes; and though he had gone a further distance than any of the Puritans did, he renounced his principles of separation, being promoted by his relation, Lord Burghley, to a benefice, that of Achurch in Northamptonshire. He died in a prison in 1630, in the 80th year of his age, having been sent thither by a justice of the peace for assaulting a constable, who was executing a warrant against him.

* So denominated from Henry Barrow, a layman, and noted sectary, who suffered death for publishing seditious books against the Queen and the State.

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