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tion and threw the remaining part into the fire. After this had been performed with great solemnity one took the snuff remaining in the vessel and threw it all into the fire. They then took up their packs, raised the scalp yell, waved their tomahawks over their heads and marched out for battle.

“There were three thousand warriors who drew four days' rations at Detroit. When they left us they told us to be good boys and stay there until they came back and they would bring some more Yankees, who should cook and do all the hard work, and we might go with them hunting. They left us in care of the squaws and a few old men. We had no other way of getting free from this unpleasant situation but deserting; for we knew that they had been offered $100 each for four of us by the citizens of Detroit, but refused it. These four were Major Graves, Samuel Ganoe, John Davenport and myself. Thinking this as favorable an opportunity as we should get, I proposed to Samuel Ganoe to set off with me; he readily consented and we set off just at dark, and ran eight miles to Detroit. Reaching the house of a Mr. H. we were concealed in a potato cellar where we remained four days. From there we were taken to Sandwich and then to Malden. On the 16th of May we were sent across the lake (Erie) to Cleveland.'

A POEM OF THE BATTLE.

There was evidently a poet among the prisoners, for the following verses were found in a house where some of them were confined in Amherstburg:

BATTLE OF THE RIVER RAISIN

On Raisin darkness reigned around,
And silent was the tented ground,
Where weary soldiers slept profound.
Far in the wintry wilderness.
No danger did the sentry fear
No wakeful watch at midnight drear;
But Ah! the foe approaches near
Through forests frowning darkly.
And ere the sun had 'risen bright
Fast flashing mid the stormy fight
The thundering cannon's livid, light
Glared on the sight most frightfully.

Then deadly flew the balls of lead!
Then many of the foremen bled
And thrice their branded legion fled
Before Kentucky's Chivalry.
And long our heroes' swords prevail;
But hist! that deep and doleful wail-
Ah! freedom's sons begin to fail :
Oppressed by numbers battling.
But rise! Ye volunteers, arise!
Behold! your right hand column flies !
And hark! your shouts which rend the skies !
When Indians yell tumultuously.

Rush o'er the bloody field of fame,
Drive back the savage whence he came!
For glory waits the victor's name
Returning home exultingly.

'Tis done. The dreadful fight is o'er
Thick clouds of smoke are seen no more,-
The snowy plain is red with gore
Where fell the friends of liberty.--

CHAPTER VIII

WAR OF 1812

SURRENDER OF DETROIT—AMERICAN SOLDIERS MARCH FOR DETROIT ARMY SURRENDERS TO BRITISH HANDFUL-BOMBARDMENT OF DETROIT

COLONEL THE FORT SURRENDERED-PATRIOTISM FULLY AROUSED Cass BREAKS SWORD RATHER THAN GIVE IT UP-BRITISH INDIAN ALLIANCE-RIVER RAISIN MASSACRE-CANADIAN COMMENTS ON HULL'S SURRENDER-HULL COURT-MARTIALED FROM

PRIVATE VIEWPOINT-BRITISH CHANGE OF BASE.

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The historian always approaches the task of chronicling this unhappy event in the history of Michigan with emotions of sorrow, chagrin and of the deepest indignation; that the first instance of such flagrant disloyalty and cowardice in the United States army should have occurred on Michigan soil is too bitter a recollection even at this distant day to be entertained with any degree of patience or equanimity, an act which disgraced its perpetrator, and set back for months the ending of the war at great cost to the nation in money and in loss of its brave soldiers. The consoling reflection is that Hull was not a Michigan man. The events of the war of 1812 in a purely military point of view were of such political and social importance to Michigan that an outline of them at least is necessary to the complete comprehension of the situation in and around Monroe, the point in the northwest most deeply interested; for its location on the very borders of civilization and its close contiguity to the boundary lines between the two countries, placing it in the very midst of the war zone, gives it, necessarily, the most thrilling interest. This involves, unavoidably, a reference to the surrender of Detroit in the early months of the war.

THE SURRENDER OF DETROIT

Upon this event; whatever may have been the laudable desire of personal friends and relatives to remove obloquy from an officer of kind heart and many good qualities, there has been an almost unanimous agreement among military men and others, as to the circumstances and the character of this most disgraceful and lamentable occurrence, which have been many times, already, made familiar by historians. Especially in Lossing's “Field Book of the War of 1812” has it been given with fullness and accuracy. It will be useless to go into the particulars at great length.

The conduct of our War Department in delaying important preparations, and in not using greater diligence and expedition in sending out information of the declaration of war, was most reprehensible. And so far as it really interfered with any military successes, the excuse should be, and has been allowed to all officers and others who did their best. But it is also no more than reasonable to discard from such allowance, any difficulties or dangers, which, although they might have been possible, either had no effect upon results or did not exist; or if they did exist were not of such a threatening character that any one should have acted rationally upon them. The delays and difficulties were not confined to American movements and preparations; and the fears of some wise men” and good officers at a distance from the scene concerning the precise nature of perils on the frontier, could not have been entertained had they been on the spot, and been acquainted with the conditions of affairs on both sides of the line.

It will be remembered that there was opposition to the declaration of war, and of course it was among the possibilities that no declaration would be made. The vote in congress on the question was very close, and the issue remained in doubt for some days before the decisive vote was taken. It appears from various sources, and especially from those brought to light in General Hull's behalf, that he was opposed to it at that time and especially to declaring it so early as likely to endanger his civil jurisdiction, and the people living under it. He claims also to have been opposed to the invasion of Canada on similar grounds, (although a letter written by him bears a different construction) and for the reason that he considered it too strong to be overcome by the American forces; he was reluctant to accept a military command, fearing that he would be expected to invade Canada and conduct a vigorous campaign.

AMERICAN SOLDIERS AARCH FOR DETROIT

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As a matter of fact from the twentieth of July, the army was hourly in expectation of orders to march on Malden. The enemy's weakness was well known, and it was believed, since confirmed, that the English would have made but little resistance. But time passed on and no such orders were issued.

On the 17th of August marching orders were given; at eleven o'clock tents were struck and loaded and the wagon train was moving; but instead of moving down the road in the direction of the enemy, it was driven to the landing and ferried across the river, and stationed on the common north of the fort. Orders were issued during the night to break camp, and the army marched to Detroit. This act created astonishment and indignation among the soldiers, and it was freely whispered that Hull had disgraced the army, and himself. This act of General Hull is the more astonishing, as it was known that the enemy's force was weak, and becoming still weaker by desertion; from six hundred and sixty Canadian militia to one hundred and fifty; from one hundred Indians under Tecumseh, to sixty, with but two hundred and twenty-five regulars. It was also known to Hull that the British officers had already sent their most valuable effects on board their vessels in port, preparatory to a precipitate evacuation of the post.

ARMY SURRENDERS TO BRITISH HANDFUL

On the other hand, according to the official report of the Brigade Major, acting as Adjutant General of the army, the forces under General Hull numbered two thousand, three hundred effective men, well supplied with artillery, in addition to the guns of the fort and advance batteries. There was an abundance of provisions, stores and ammunition for a month's siege; nothing, in fact, was wanting to secure the most favorable action of the troops. But with this superiority of numbers, with the enemy already demoralized by fear, and ready to surrender, General Hull ignominiously surrendered Detroit and his entire army to a handful of

British! How this was brought about, and in what manner it was accomplished, is told in the following words by one of Hull's officers: “On the 9th of August, a strong detachment was marched down the road, with orders to attack the enemy who had crossed the Detroit river in considerable force, and taken up position nearly opposite the center of Grosse Isle, cutting off communication with Ohio over which supplies were expected. The detachment reached them at three o'clock in the afternoon and immediately charged their lines, driving them three miles to their boats, in which, as it had become dark and was raining heavily, most of them escaped to Malden. In this action the Americans and British were about equal in numbers. The British brought into action a large part of their regulars, together with all the Indian contingent, all under the command of Major Mier. The following day the American detachment, after sending forward the mails and dispatches returned to the fort. The American loss was sixty-eight men; the English somewhat less. This action is known as the Battle of Brownstown. The principal development in this affair, was the fact that a largely increased force of Indian allies had joined the standard of Tecumseh, who had circulated the news of the fall of Mackinaw among the tribes, and summoned them to him by promises of plunder. Instead of sixty-men (Indians) he now had nearly six hundred; and by the 16th seven hundred warriors had joined him, who as a single body of savages were probably never equaled for bravery.

“A suspicion now grew in the minds of the most active and intelligent of the volunteers, which soon increased to a point that left no doubt about the complete failure of the valor and patriotism of the commanding general. A Round Robin was proposed, prepared and signed. This was a written document, the names thereon being signed in a circle, in order that it should not show who signed first. This was sent to the Ohio volunteers, requesting the arrest or displacement of the general, and placing the oldest of the Colonels, Colonel McArthur in command.'

“The suspicion and distrust of the Army," says Colonel Hatch, "was now increased, by General Hull's peremptory refusal to allow Captain Snelling to cross the river in the night to carry and destroy an unfinished battery which was being constructed on the opposite bank, under the direction of Captain Dixon of the Royal Artillery. This was the only battery of any consequence established by the enemy, and the only one which injured the Americans. It opened on the afternoon of the fifteenth and continued its fire during the morning of the sixteenth, when a ball from one of its guns struck and instantly killed Lieutenant Hanks, who had been in command at Mackinaw. The same ball continued its course and wounded Surgeon Reynolds, of the Third Regiment of Volunteers. On Thursday, August 13th it became necessary to exercise the greatest vigilance, and that the outlying pickets should be increased. At eleven o'clock on that evening, a boat was discovered approaching the fort from the Canadian side of the river, and as it neared the shore, it was seen that two men were sitting aft, with two others at the oars. The boat was challenged and came up to the shore, when one of the men gave the countersign. He was well known to have the confidence of the commanding general more fully than any other officer” says the same authority already quoted, “and in almost every case, had been intrusted with the duty of communication by flag of truce, with the enemy. The other man appeared, by the dim light, to be young, of good figure, and of military bearing. They directed their steps to the headquarters of the commanding general, remaining there three hours. They then returned to the boat and crossed to the Canadian shore. The boat came back, but only one of the two men was with her. He gave the word and passed on.

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At that hour of the same night, the capitulation of the fort and the surrender of the Northwestern army was agreed upon. The parties to that agreement were General Hull, on the part of the American army, and Major Glegg on the part of the British. Major Glegg was one of the aids-de-camp of General Brock. Just previous to this date a reinforcement of two hundred and thirty men, under the command of Colonel Henry Brush, of Chillicothe, Ohio, conveying supplies, including one hundred head of cattle, had arrived at Frenchtown, on the River Raisin, only thirty-five miles from the fort. Here they halted in consequence of the threatening attitude of the enemy, and reported to the commanding general, who issued orders on Friday afternoon, August 14th, for a detachment of about three hundred men, under command of the colonels of the First and Third Regiments of Ohio Volunteers, to march at twilight on the line of a circuitous route or trail, which crossed the River Rouge several miles above its mouth, continuing far into the interior, passing the Huron, and striking the Raisin a few miles west of the French settlement, and passing down the stream to Frenchtown. After a short delay the detachment were ordered to join Colonel Brush, which they failed to do until arriving back at Detroit. Here both detachments joined, and in readiness to participate in an engagement with the enemy before the fort. “We resumed this unusual march, and without halting until we arrived," says a young captain of the Ohio troops, "about midnight, at the edge of the woods; when to our amazement, consternation and hot indignation we beheld the British flag floating from the flag staff of the fort, and the Indians in the large common, driving off the horses and cattle. The fort of Detroit and the Northwestern army had surrendered. The detachment that we had just followed was included in the surrender, as well as that under Colonel Brush, at the River Raisin." Colonel Brush, however, decided that he and his men would not be surrendered. He detained the British flag sent to inform him of the capitulation long enough to obtain supplies for his soldiers, when the whole force started for Ohio, where they arrived in safety.

The arrival of the British officers and the report that General Brock had demanded the surrender of the post, gave the first intimation to the citizens and soldiers of the proximity of the British General. The following is the document demanding the surrender:

'HEADQUARTERS, SANDWICH, Aug. 15, 1812.—Sir: The force at my disposal authorizes me to require of you the immediate surrender of Fort Detroit. It is far from my inclination to join in a war of extermination; but you must be aware that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops will be beyond my control the moment the contest commences. You will find me disposed to enter into such conditions as will satisfy the most scrupulous sense of honor. Lieut. Col. McDonald and Major Glegg are fully authorized to conclude any arrangement that may prevent the unnecessary effusion of blood. I have the honor to be your obedient servant,

ISAAC BROCK, Major General, etc. “His Excellency Brigadier General Hull, etc."

To this letter General Hull returned a decided refusal to comply with the proposal, although the latter portion of the letter appears to be apologetic for certain transactions not mentioned further. The following is General Hull's letter in reply to that of General Brock:

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