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that the remains supposed to have been his, were, in fact, those of another chief. But the truth was fully established at the time. Several of the officers of the Forty-first Regiment in being apprised of his fall, went, accompanied by some officers of Gen. Harrison's staff, to visit the spot where Tecumseh lay, and there they identified (for they knew him well in life) the mangled corpse before them, all that remained of the late powerful and intelligent chieftain.

Tecumseh was not impressed with the generalship of Proctor, who manifested emphatic indignation and disgust at the celebrated council held before the engagement at the Thames. Richardson evidently speaks authoritatively in his narrative when he reviews Proctor's attempted defense of his own conduct when under trial by court martial. His words are as follows:

General Proctor furthermore asserts in his defence that the original instruction was to fortify a position on the Thames, for the two-fold purpose of protecting the center division and conciliating the Indians.

Probably no white man was better qualified to speak of Tecumseh, or who had had a better opportunity to become acquainted with the character of this great chief, than James Knaggs of Monroe county who had known him from boyhood and who had been for years an interpreter, who was at the battle of the Moravian town where Tecumseh was killed, and helped in carrying Col. Johnson off the field, being severely wounded by Tecumseh. He and his old neighbor Labadie, assisted by two Kentucky soldiers, placed Col. Johnson in a blanket and carried him to the American headquarters, where he was cared for by the surgeon. When his wound was properly dressed he resumed his position with his command. Mr. Knaggs always lamented the absence of Tecumseh from the River Raisin at the time of the massacre, feeling positive that his influence with the savages would have been used to prevent the bloody scenes which occurred. Such, also, was the opinion of many others who were familiar with Tecumseh's character and general line of conduct.

It is true that in warfare he fought along the lines of the Indians' conception of the methods of warfare, but he did not, like Pontiac and the bloodthirsty Iroquois delight in bloodshed and the atrocities which characterized the warlike tribes. There was a strain of noble blood in his veins, which was not apparent, even, in his brother the prophet and which lifted him above the common level of the red man.

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General Hull having been appointed by the general government to take possession of a part of Upper Canada, his forces amounting to about three thousand men not being considered sufficient to execute thať design, three regiments of volunteer infantry and one regiment of United States infantry were called out.


Agreeably to a general order the following regiments rendezvoused at Georgetown, Kentucky, August 15, 1812, to wit: The First Regiment was commanded by Colonel John M. Scott, the Fifteenth was commanded by Colonel William Lewis, the First Rifle Regiment by Colonel John Allen, the Seventeenth United States Infantry by Colonel Samuel Wells, the whole under the command of Brigadier-General Payne.

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The “Journal” commences on August 16, 1812: The troops paraded in the morning and were received by Governor Scott. We paraded again at 10 o'clock, and marched to a convenient place in close order, where the Rev. Mr. Blythe preached a short sermon and the Honorable Henry Clay delivered an appropriate discourse.

August 17: Troops inspected by Major Garrard.

August 18: We drew two months' pay in advance. There being a general complaint amongst the volunteers respecting sixteen dollars, which were expected to be drawn in lieu of clothing, Major Graves paraded his battalion and gave them their choice to go on without the sixteen dollars or return home. Six chose to return; these were afterwards drummed out of camp through the town.


August 19: We commenced our march in high spirits to join General Hull at Detroit or in Canada. Each regiment for convenience and speed marched separately to Newport (Kentucky), arriving there on August 24th.

The distance is eighty miles to Georgetown. It rained most of the time, which made it very disagreeable traveling and camping. These hardships tended a little to quench the excessive patriotic flame that had blazed so conspicuously at the different musters and barbecues that had attended the enlistments. Here we received information of General Hull having surrendered Detroit and Michigan territory to General Brock on the 15th inst., while in possession of the necessary means to have held that post against the forces of Upper Canada. This we could not believe until confirmed by hand bills and good authority. When thus confirmed it appeared to make serious impressions on the minds of officers and privates. Those high expectations of participating with General Hull in the laurels to be acquired by the conquest of Malden and Upper Canada were entirely abandoned. We drew our arms and accoutrements and crossed the Ohio on August 27th. Our destination was thought to be Fort Wayne. The following general order was issued on the 23d for the guidance of the command on its march northward :

Headquarters, Cincinnati, O. August 23, 1812. The troops will commence their march in the direction of Dayton by Lebanon at an early hour tomorrow morning. The generale will be beat instead of the rcveille; the tents will then be struck, the baggage loaded, and the line of march taken up as soon as possible.

The commands of the several corps will immediately commence drilling their men to the performance of the evolutions contemplated by the Commander-inChief for the order of march and battle. The principal feature in all these evoluztions is that of a battalion changing its direction by swinging on its center. This however, is not to be done by wheeling, for, by a large body in the woods it would be impracticable.

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These manoeuvres may be performed by any number of men, by company and platoon as well as battalion.

Major General Commanding.


August 31: General Harrison overtook the army between Lebanon and Dayton. He was received enthusiastically by all the troops as commander-in-chief with three cheers.

September 1: The army arrived at Dayton, fifty miles from Cincinnati, and was saluted by the firing of cannon.

One of the gunners had one of his hands shot off and the other badly wounded. We arrived at Piqua, September 3, thirty miles from Dayton, on the Big Miami.

September 4: Received information of the critical situation of Fort Wayne. Colonel Allen's regiment and two companies from Colonel Lewis's drew twenty-four rounds of ammunition and started with all possible speed to the relief of that fort.

September 5: General Harrison having paraded the remaining part of the army in a circle in close order, delivered a speech to them, stating that he had just received intelligence from Fort Wayne that it was in great danger of being taken by the Indians and British; he said we were under the necessity of making a forced march to their relief. He read some of the articles of war and stated the absolute necessity of such regulations and restrictions in an army, and if there were any who could not comply nor feel willing to submit to these articles and go on with him they might then return home. One man, belonging to Scott's regiment, chose to return home rather than submit to the terms. Some of his companions obtained permit to escort him part of his way home. Two of them got him upon a rail and carried him to the river; a crowd followed after; they ducked him several times in the water and diluted his war spirit liberally.

September 6: We marched at 12 o'clock, left our sick and part of our clothing and baggage at Piqua in order to make as much speed as possible. On the morning of the eighth, three miles from St. Mary's, one of Captain McGowen's company was accidentally shot through the body by one of the sentinels. It was a mortal wound and the man, we learned afterward, died in a few days. We marched four miles today and camped near the River St. Mary's, one mile from the fort. General Harrison called the army together and stated that through an emergency we must be on half rations of flour for a few days, but should draw a ration and a half of beef, as he wished to go as light and as swift as possible. He said, “Any who do not feel willing to go on these terms may remain at the fort and have plenty." I did not hear of one man staying behind.

September 9: We marched through some first rate woodland and through a large prairie of the best quality, though badly watered. We were without drinking water for hours except such as could be scooped out of the wagon ruts in the road; and even that was far from slaking our burning thirst. We encamped near River St. Mary's, eighteen miles from the fort. At eleven o'clock and again at three, were alarmed by the sentinels firing several guns; we formed in order of battle and stood so for a quarter of an hour.

September 11 : The scouts wounded an Indian and got his gun and blanket; our day's march was eleven miles. We stopped earlier than usual in order to make breastworks, and because it was a convenient place for water. We fortified this place very strongly with timber. At eleven o'clock the camp was alarmed by the firing of many guns by the sentinels. The whole army was formed in quick time, the horse troops being in the center, ready to assist any line, or to obey any order that might be given. Over half the men were dismissed and retired to their tents for one hour, when they relieved the other half. At 3 o'clock another alarm was sounded. We stood in order of battle for some time. The watchword was “Fight On" and the fort was afterwards called "Fort Fight On.'

September 12: We continued our march towards Fort Wayne with as much caution as the nature of our haste would permit. We expected to meet the enemy before reaching the fort. In a certain well known swamp through which we were obliged to pass, we thought it likely the enemy might harbor. We passed the swamp unmolested for a mile. We were then alarmed. The rear battalions formed in order of battle but saw no enemy to fight; we immediately resumed our march. Nothing of interest occurred up to the 15th when Colonel Wells was instructed to destroy the Miami towns at the forks of the Wabash. General Harrison thought proper to go with General Payne. Next morning we came to an Indian hut and a small cornfield, two miles from our encampment; here all the wagons and baggage was left and Captain Langhorn's company on guard; from this place we marched twenty-three miles to an Indian town which we found evacuated; we pulled down some of their houses and built up fires, then went into camp for the night. Here we had an abundance of green corn roasting ears of the best sort. It was a small kind of corn, shallow grain and very suitable for roasting ears, which was quite a welcome addition to our waning stock of provisions.


October 4, 1812: There has been great murmuring in camp on account of the shortage of provisions, which at times threatened dissolution of this army.

General Harrison having paraded' the troops, addressed them, saying that there were twenty-five thousand rations provided for them at St. Mary's; that these should be conveyed here as soon as possible, a portion, today doubtless; he stated the consequence of such mutinous complaints, and if this army were to disperse, where could he get men who would stand firm ? He said every effort for the supply of clothing and provisions for this army should be used. He further stated that re-inforcements from Pennsylvania and Virginia were soon to join us to the number of ten thousand.

October 9: A few days ago, one of our soldiers, Frederick Jacoby, belonging to the 17th regiment of U. S. Infantry was tried by a courtmartial, and condemned to be shot. The troops paraded and formed in a hollow square, in close order, where the Rev. Mr. Shannon delivered a short discourse on the occasion. The condemned was marched from the provost guard with solemn music under a guard of a subaltern, sergeant, corporal and twenty privates to the place of execution; here he was blindfolded; then the guard stood back from him a few paces, awaiting the hour of execution. Truly, a solemn scene amid the impressive silence. Fortunately for the man under sentence, a reprieve arrived for him just before the time set for his execution. The general judged him not of sound mind.

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October 19: The fort is at length finished and christened Fort Winchester.” It is composed of four block houses, a hospital and store house picketed between the four blockhouses all embracing about a quarter of an acre.

Probably the most cheering news that we have received for a long time was communicated to the army this day, October 27th in an address by General Winchester, which stated that they would shortly be in receipt of a sufficient quantity of warm comfortable clothing and shoes, amongst which are ten thousand pairs of shoes, five thousand blankets, five thousand round jackets, five thousand pairs of trousers; hesides woolen cloth for making up, as needed. Besides this there were one thousand watch coats, five thousand blankets, one thousand yards of flannel; twelve thousand pairs of shoes; ten thousand pairs of woolen socks, and ten thousand pairs of long woolen hose. “Yet a few days, closes the General's words, and the General consoles himself with the thought of seeing those whom he has the honor to command clad in warm woolen clothing capable of resisting the northern blasts of Canada.


December 29, 1812: (The journal resumes under this date.) We are now about to commence, one of the most serious and ardous marches ever performed by the Americans. Destitute in a measure of clothes, shoes and provisions the most essential articles necessary for the existence and preservation of the human species in this world and more particularly in this cold climate. Three sleds are prepared for each company each to be drawn by a packhorse which has been without food for two weeks, except brush, and will not be better fed while in our service; probably the most of these horses never had harness on; but the presumption is they will be too tame. We have made harness out of green hides.

December 30: After nearly two months' preparation for this expedition, we commenced our march in great splendor (!) Our clothes and

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