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different might have proved their future! With | about in an absent, quiet sort of way—missing no yearning for the city's gayest pleasures, the stern rule to which she had for so long been the theatre, the concert-hall, and and ball-room accustomed ; and then she died. -as courted by the mediocre class of the social The neighbours said "it was the oldscale with whom they mingled--with more fashioned consumption. Folks always dropped elevated ideas and a higher standard, they away sudden with it, at last.” Of wha treal would never have gone back to the city use was Deacon Morris's wealth ?

What good to become the wives of fast young men, who seed did he sow in his life ? Little, we judge; married them for their portions, and then led for the harvest reaped was scanty and blighted; them lives of neglect and unhappiness.

and the Dead Sea Apples, whose taste is like And the poor, hard-working mother--what ashes, were put to his family's lips. And it of her? Ah, when the iron hand was lifted, it might have been so different for them all. was too late. The springs of her life had been Ah! are not the lives of all men like Deasapped long before. For a few years she went 'con Morris's, sad mistakes ?


The city of Katharia, until recently, had no The city of Katharia, whose history is narrated place in any book before the public, or known in this volume, was situated in the central and to scholars. It belongs to the most ancient mountainous region of the Greek Peninsula, period of uninspired history, lying just beyond north of Ætolia, and east of Arcarnania. In the age illustrated in the “Iliad” of Homer population and wealth it seems never to have and the “ Æneid” of Virgil. The existence of equalled Thebes, Athens, Argos, or Sparta, but this city in that remote antiquity, and its tra- was more ancient, and in civilization earlier adgical fall, have lately been brought to light by vanced, than any of the other cities of Greece. the discovery, in the Vatican Library at Rome, It was founded soon after the Greek tribes of a volume of surpassing interest, entitled, “A began to emerge from their barbarous state, History of the War of the Allies and the when, finding the necessity of banding together Kathari, by Pherecydes of Syros." The internal for protection against the universal rapine and and external evidences attending this book or plunder in the country, they began to gather in roll prove it, beyond a doubt, to be the oldest centres and to build the cities which became the known manuscript in existence-dating with the heads of almost as many independent states. It earliest use of alphabetic writing—and to be a was located in this least fertile region of the genuine writing of the ancient historian whose country, to be out of the way of banditti, who name is attached to it, who preceded Herodotus infested the richer sections, and, thus far from nearly a hundred years, and who has been the sea, to avoid the robbers-almost as nuknown hitherto only by references and frag- merous upon that element as upon the land. ments in the collections of Anaximines and When, in the course of time, the reasons goDiodorus Siculus. It is written in Doric Greek. verning this location were removed, by the Its style is very simple, and purely narrative, general advancement of civilization, the restricreminding us much of that of the Old Testament tion upon the growth in population, wealth, and Scriptures. It has upon it labels and other power which it imposed remained, and barred marks, which show that it belonged to the li- the prospect of a successful race, in respect of brary of Pisistratus in Athens, which was these, with the cities of the plains and the seatransported by Xerxes into Persia, and after-board. It needed not the severe laws imposed wards brought back by Seleucus Nicanor to upon the Lacedemonians to secure simplicity in Athens, where it was plundered by Sylla, by the habits and tastes of its people. The limited whom, it is probable, this voluine was carried to supplies of the region and the slender resources Rome. Of its resting-place from that time for trade compelled to the practice of industry whether in the Ulpian or Palatine, and after and frugality.' With these habits grew up the their destruction in some other public or private virtues which are usually found united with library of Rome-to the founding of the Vatic them. The people, in general, were just, truthcan in 1450; we know nothing. In the Vatican ful, unambitious, temperate, chaste, and obeit was buried beneath a heap of valueless manu- dient to the laws. Crime was of rare occurscripts-the taste of the age for scholastic and rence, and, when it occurred, was severely puntheological literature causing it to be neg- ished. Virtuous and united, they were happy lected and left unexamined—where it remained and free. until its recent disinterment,

The government of Katharia was republican.


It was the first of Grecian cities or states, tercourse with that people, as bet reen the Jews to throw off monarchy. The public affairs and Lacedemonians in the time of Jonathan were administered by a senate of thirty men Maccabeus. They worshipped one God in a chosen by the people, called the Triakas, twenty costly temple, with prayers and sacrifices of of whom must unite in any measure proposed birds and of beasts. They attached the tighest before it should become a law; failing of which importance to individual purity, and as an emnumber, any proposition nearly dividing them blem of it to cleanliness of person, and per. must be referred to the popular Assembly for formed frequent ablutions & religions decision. This reference, however, seldom was ordinance. They held the doctrine of the im. made--and never except on great occasions and mortality of the soul, but in connection with dangerous crises in public affairs-owing to the metempsychosis, which they believed to be a virtue and intelligence of the people in exclud. continuous progression up to the highest state of ing party strifes, and in selecting only worthy endless felicity. men for this high office, and to the wisdom and The relations of the Kathari to the surroundharmony of the men chosen. The responsibility ing kingdoms were disturbed and unhappy, from for the execution of the laws was laid upon the the time of their deposition of their last king, President of the Triakatioi, who was chosen by and their abolition of monarchy. The jealousy that body out of their own number. The and hostility of the neighbouring princes were Triakas also exercised judicial powers, hearing shown for some years in a series of encroach. and deciding all differences between citizens ments, which rendered resistance necessary, and that could not be settled privately by occasioned frequent collisions in arms with the calling in three neighbours as umpires. separate states, in which the rights and power Serious litigation was

of rare

occurrence; of the republic were always maintained. At and no class of professional advocates or length this deep-seated and long-growing hosattorneys existed in the little common- tility eventuated in a league of the monarchical wealth, the Triakatioi themselves appointing powers for the destruction of Katharia. A long one of their number to assist each of the parties war ensued; the arms of the republic were ricappearing before them, and inflicting a penalty torious upon many a field. The war was carupon anyone found to have shown an unjustly ried to the very gates of the enemy. In the pro. litigious spirit. Th laws were few and inild gress of the wasting strife, however, it became and wise, such as were suited to a people who evident that the republic must be overwhelmed. had not been corrupted by tyranny or avarice Its resources were too feeble compared with or the lust of foreign conquests, and retained those of the powerful allied enemy. Its supply the utmost simplicity in taste and living. They of men was being daily exhausted, whilst that jealously provided for the maintenance of pri- of the allies was constantly renewed. At last vate faith and the public credit-enjoining with its valiant army, greatly reduced in numbers, greatest stress and using their highest sanc- was beaten in the field, and fell back toward the tions to secure truth and honour and fair deal- city, followed by the victorious enemy. Phroning between citizens, and the faithful payment tistes, the general commanding, sent before him of dues and duties to the state, as the cardinal a messenger to the president of the Triakatioi

, virtues necessary to make a good government. informing him of his retreat, of the approach of As a check to both the accumulation and the the enemy, and of his inability to give battle contraction of debt, they had a provision for its with the hope of success, and asking for orders. expiration after a definite period, something The Triakas was summoned for deliberation. like the Sabbatical year and the Jubilee of the The assembly was grave and solemn : there was Jews, from whom it may have been borrowed. deep solicitude marked on each brow, but no For the protection of the state-strictly for de. craven fear in any breast. All were agreed that fence and net for aggression - the whole adult resistance should be made, even to exterminamale population, except those disqualified by tion, and that the last available man in the city sickness or the infirmities of age, were b:ought must be sent forth to the conflict; but it was into a military organization, and practised regu- determined first to call an assembly of the peolarly in the handling of arms and the move-ple. In obedience to the summons of their ments of the field. The youth were trained magistrates, the people came out in great mulfrom an early period to warlike exercises. Their titudes. The smith left his forge and the unphysical development—from these exercises and finished weapon upon the anvil, the baker his iheir simple habits and avocations—their tall ovens, the physician the bedside of the sick stature and muscular frames, and skill in the use and dying; the lame hobbled along on their of weapons, made them formidable adversaries crutches; the old men came out, and even the in those ancient days, when conflicts were women and the boys were there. The presihand-to-hand, and were decided by personal dent of the Triakas made a brief statement of prowess and strength.

the conflict that had been forced upon them, of The religion of the Kathari was an elerated the long-sustained toils and valour of their solMonotheism and Rationalism. They made no diers in the field, of their final defeat and reclaim to a divine revelation, and held to pure treat before overwhelming numbers, and of the reason as the only guide to religious truth, yet approach of the enemy to their gates; and conpractised a number of rites which again remind cluded by calling upon the assembly to give us of the Jews, and which go to prove some in. I their voices, whether they should submit and

throw themselves upon the mercy of their ene- | their own leader, and Eugathes was chosen by mies, or resist. “We will fight! we will die!" acclamation. The smaller of them were armed shouted the whole multitude. “Then let the with darts to be thrown from the hand, that the able-bodied men," said the president, “gather difference between their weakness and the themselves in company, and prepare to go forth strength of the veteran enemy mightin a measure to meet the enemy." “And the old men will be counteracted. A portion of the elder ones go,” said the venerable Leitus, rising in the as- were furnished each with a bow and a quiver of sembly with flowing locks white with the frost barbed arrows; and the remainder, comprising of threescore years, who in the vigour of his those who had had most practice and had aclife had been a warrior that never met equal in quired most skill in handling the spear, with foe, and had often led the armies of the repub- that weapon; while all were provided with short lic to victory.

swords. The women put themselves under the No sooner were the words spoken than the old command of Calliste, and were armed as their men from every part of the assembly left their tastes dictated and the emergency would permit; places, and, crowding about him, grasped his but all were furnished with daggers for the last hand in grateful and joyful response. “And extremity; the boys will go,” said young Eugathes, the The whole city prepared for its successful pride of the youth of the city, their acknow. defence, or a last great sacrifice to liberty. The ledged leader in every warlike exercise, who infants and small children, with the bed-ridden could send the arrow from the bow, with un- sick, were carried into the Temple and commiterring, deadly aim, full an hundred and fifty ted to the care of the very aged women. A fire paces; and could drive a spear with a force and was burning on the altar, and a torch ready to skill that would put to proof the stoutest shield be lighted lay beside it, both guarded by an aged and stoutest warrior. Like the notes of a trum. priestess of four-score years and ten. At the pet calling to a charge, his words brought all sound of the first signal-call, the mother nursed the boys in the assembly crowding about him, her babe, then gave it over to its old nurses, and with an intelligent enthusiasm glowing in their with resolute heart and step proceeded to the faces, which bespoke an appreciation of the so- place of gathering; the youth was embraced by lemnity of the occasion and a readiness to meet his parents, then lightly, without gaiety, bounded any danger.

away to the rendezvous; the old man laid by * And the women will go," said the noble his staff

, and supporting himself on his spear, Calliste, a senator's wife, sister of the valiant or lifted above the need of either by powerful Astrepus and Astropus, who were among the emotion, hastened to join his ancient comrades; bravest of the brave in the little army of vete- and every other class of the population seemed rans which stood between the city and the over- to be stirred by the same excitement, and in whelming legions of the enemy. As the echo an- motion from the same great absorbing purpose. swered to the call, the response came up from all When again the trumpets pealed forth their loud the women of the assembly: 'We will go!' notes, the strange army began to move, and was

The assembly broke up, only to give place to soon pouring through the gates to the desperate a universal preparation for meeting the enemy. and deadly strife. When Phrontistes and his All minds and hearts were united, and as the veterans beheld them, they did not cheer, but mind and heart of one man in patriotic ardour stood and wept—not unmanly and cowardly and invincible determination. Life seemed to tears, but of holy omotion, of pity and love. none to have any attractions if to be had by the Their souls, which melted into weakness at the mercy of their foes, and to be passed in dishon- sight of these dear ones armed for conflict and our and disgrace under the rule of foreign des- death, hardened to adamant as they glanced topots. All were resolved to sell it as dearly as ward the enemy between whom and them they possible, if unable to preserve it with their homes stood; and each bronzed warrior felt the uncon. and their liberties.

querable determination full formed, that his body It was determined that the mature and strong must lie a hleeding corpse upon the earth before men, who had hitherto been kept at home by the ruthless strise should reach these their fathers employments necessary to the public, should at, and little brothers, their mothers and sisters, once join the army, to fill up so many places in their wives and sons and daughters. its thinned ranks. The old men and the boys Leitus, with his aged men, took his position should constitute the first reserve; behind them in the rear of the army on the right, and Eugaall the women should be stationed; while the thes with his boy.comrades on the left. A feeble and lame of all ages should dispose them- short space was left between them and Calliste selves in any of the divisions, as they might with her command of women. An hour before deem they could be of most service. Leitus noon, on the day they went out, the enemy was, without other nomination, chosen by the came in view. As they moved on in thick ranks, old men to lead them. The spears and battle their armour glanced a sea of light under the axes with which they had followed him in long bright rays of the sun, and their long columns, past years to battle and to victory, which for a extending back beyond the sight, seemed interquarter of a century had been undisturbed in minable," Having approached within two hun. their resting-places, were taken down and bur- dred paces, a company of archers in front threw nished to their original brightness. The boys a shower of arrows upon the Kathari, which fell asked and were granted the privilege of naming harmless from the helmets and shields of the

latter. Behind the archers the heavier armed, of Leitus, for the advance of the aged men troops quickly formed, each command of an under his command, and the boys under hundred, by a rapid and simple evolution, ma- Eugathes. The old men, on the right, moved king a solid square equal in rank and file. They forward with the elastic step of youth, and came on five of these abreast, and with others with the order of veterans, as they were. The following so closely as to leave little more space weight of two-score years seemed to have between them, than between the ranks of each. been lifted off them. They seemed to At the word of command, the Kathari rushed themselves put back in their early manhood, forward against this solid array, with a fury that and again under their ancient and glorious seemed to make up their want of numbers and leader, also restored to his vigorous prime. to equalize the strife. Like the wrestling of the They threw themselves upon the enemy, who wind and the trees, when a tornado goes strain- were amazed at the strange spectacle and at the ing, creaking, and crashing through some tall strange weight of their blows with battle-axe forest, levelling all before it save here and there and spear, and with awe questioned in thema sturdy oak, were the struggle and confused selves whether an army of beroes of past ages noise when these strong, brave men threw them- had been raised up from the earth for the aid of selves upon their assailants. Helmets and the Kathari. Old Leitus was as an infuriated shields were powerless to resist the mighty blows and uncaged lion. More than the strength of they let fall upon them. They drove right even early manhood seemed in his arm. He through the foremost squares of the enemy, cut- encountered the enemy first where the brave ting a swarth as broad as their own front, and and good Phrontistes had been, with his single covering the ground with dead as they went, arm, holding at bay a multitude of assailants, until they stood inclosed on three sides by their and just as that great soldier fell pierced through foes ; then dividing and opening on either hand, the heart with a javelin. He threw himself in they pressed the enemy back in confusion upon the midst of the throng as their shouts of his flanks. A few of the stronger and braver triumph were raised above the noise of the of the allies, however, extricating themselves strife, and swinging round his huge battle-axe, from the mass, and cleaving about them a space weighing fully one-half more than those of later for the use of their weapons, began to make a make, smote down on the right hand and the successful stand along the rear-lines of the first left and before and behind. The bewildered divisions, giving time for those behind to recover enemy shrank and scattered from before his from the confusion made by the pressure upon death-dealing weapon. His command, with a them. Hippocleas, a tall and powerful Thessa- courage like that of their leader, and with a lian, stood like a breaker resisting the surf. fury that could not be resisted, engaged the About him lay the prostrate bodies of six Katha- enemy along their whole right line, and drove rian warriors. The valiant Astropus engaged them back in confusion. Wonderful to behold him. Above the din of the battle their powerful was the heroism of those old men and the car. blows were heard. They seemed matched in nage they made. strength and skill. At length Hippocleas, seiz- On the left, the boys advanced with great ing the opportunity of an unguarded moment of courage and steadiness. The more generous of Astropus, lifted his great mace for a blow with the allies regarded them with admiration for which to decide and end the combat, which their courage, and with pity for the immolation shivered the helmet of Astropus and stunned and to which they seemed doomed, and were inclined staggered him; but before he could repeat it or to interpose to turn them back, if possible, and interpose, the battle-axe of Astropus was buried save them; but the greater part looked upon in his brain. The brave Astropus strove long them with contempt and derision. When they with a gigantic Phocian, commander of an hun had come within easy range, the boys who were dred; but in the act of cleaving his helmet his armed with bows let fly their arrows, which now, forehead was pierced through by a spear from in the comparatively unguarded and uncovered the side.

state of inany of the enemy, did much execution, For more than an hour victory seemed to be killing some and wounding more. Two comlong to the Kathari. But it was a contest in panies of spearmen from the enemy were which mere valour could not triumph. The ordered to charge and disperse them. These

, wearied and shattered divisions of the enemy as they came on, were met by another shower were skilfully

withdrawn, and others fresh and of arrows, some of which were aimed with such well-organized hurled upon Phrontistes and his precision and with such short range that several surviving heroes. The latter, reduced in num- fell mortally pierced by them, among whom was bers, and faint from their great exertions, and the leader of the charge; others were wounded many of them from the loss of blood, met the in the feet and legs beneath their shields, and new host with desperate courage and all the unable to withdraw the barbs or to endure the strength that remained to them. They piled pain, dropped out of their ranks. The older the dead around them in heaps,

and fought over and stronger boys then rushed forward with ramparts made by their enemies' corpses. But their spears. What they lacked in strength of their own blood was flowing, and many of them being equal to their opponents, they made up in were falling, horne down by the overwhelming activity and skill. Their astonished assailants numbers and fresh energies of their foes. who had come out, as to a short and easy work,

At this time the signal was given, by order to disperse them, were beaten back into their

lines with their comrades, leaving many of their , not possible to define or describe the terrible number wounded and dead. The conflict now fury with which the Katharian women fung became general on the part of the boys. They themselves into the strife. It was not merely fought with blind and wild desperation; they desperation; it was more a frenzy, a mania, a could not be propitiated or put off by the delirium, as if the snuffing of the scent of magnanimous of the enemy, who endeavoured blood-the blood of slaughtered kindred and to avoid encounter with them and to spare them; relatives-had set their brains on fire. They and they engaged the fiercest and stoutest, re- fought with a frantic energy far beyond all gardless of the inequality of their strength. ordinary strength of their sex. Calliste seemed Yet there was an alertness and an ingenuity scarcely of earth or mortal. Superb of stature, united with their recklessness, which outwitted yet feminine and graceful; in the prime of and vanquished many a veteran warrior before womanhood, yet retaining the freshness of youth; whom no other foe had ever been able to stand. of the rarest beauty, now made more striking The powerful Petalus of Argos, attacked and by the intense passion evinced in her whole long beset and foiled by the small Ascates, frame and flashing and flaming from her eyes ; aimed at him a blow one-balf of whose weight and handling her spear with masculine strength, would have crushed the slender frame; Ascates, which had already in rapid succession brought nimble as a roe, stooping, leaped forward, avoid- three stout warriors to the earth, she seemed to ing the blow, and before the warrior could re- the enemy some celestial being-as Hebe taken cover his arm, rushed up under his shield and to martial strife, or Diana having left off the drove his short sword' through his bowels. sports of the field, and come to fight the battle Little Ellus provoked a powerful thrust of the of the Kathari. An awe like a paralysis smote spear from Duscheres of Ætolia, from before those whom she assailed. Her followers everywhich he nimbly sprung, and in the moment of where were reckless of life and regardless of Duscheres's exertion and partial uncovering, death. They rushed right up on to the spears lodged a dart deep in his right eye. It would of the enemy, and though many were thrust be impossible to decide which were the more to through, and others were crushed by maces and be admired and the more wonderful in valour, battle-axes, others pressed on until they reached Leitus and the old men, or Eugathes and the the foe with spear or sword or dagger. Soboys. Together they turned the tide of battle phronia, a noble matron and mother of a brave again against the allies; yet other ground was young warrior who had already fallen, received gained, the enemy who escaped from their a mortal wound from a spear, which was broken weapons being driven back upon their rear-lines. in the effort to withdraw it, leaving the head

But the contest was one hopeless as to its buried in her breast. With convulsive energy issue, from the exhaustless numbers of the she threw herself upon the soldier who made enemy, directed as they were by able and ex- the thrust, plunged her short sword into his perienced generals. Other and fresh divisions heart, and fell with him dying. Arete, a beautiwere again brought up, and those broken and ful maiden, was skilfully disarmed, except of the weary relieved.

The devoted Kathari of all i dagger in her girdle, by an athletic Locritian, classes, now led by Leitus since the fall of whose rich attire indicated princely rank and Phrontistes, struggled heroically but without high command, who, thinking to secure bis fair avail against the new avalanche hurled upon prize and bear her away, approached and threw them. They yielded the ground they had his arm around her, when he received the ungained only as they embraced it in death. As observed dagger deep in his side. the hope of a victory which would save all dear It would require many pages to narrate all to them that was left died out in their hearts, the remarkable encounters and displays of they were fired with the energy of despair. personal heroism in that desperate conflict. None cared to survive. They neither asked And any further detail of the progress of nor gave quarter. Pressed hard on every side, the battle would be only a repetition of they fell in great numbers, but made dreadful į the melancholy story we have gone overcarnage among the enerny as the price of their of matchless valour contending hopelessly lives.

against the overwhelming numbers of a ruthless The women had long waited in vain for some but brave and disciplined enemy. After five signal for them to advance. Seeing now their hours of struggle and carnage, the field was fathers and brothers and husbands and sons nearly cleared of Kathari—that is, of the living: pressed sorely, and about to be overwhelmed in Their dead and dying lay everywhere thick, and this terrible and unequal conflict, and resolved in spots in frightful heaps, mingled together to perish with them, they left their position and with the dead and dying of the enemy; dead moved rapidly on toward the bloody field. The warriors lying facing each other, each transallies, when they first saw them, supposed they fixed by the other's vision, their features had come out to supplicate them for the city pointed with the fierceness of the strife, fixed and the lives of the surviving Kathari. But and made ghastly by death; the grey head of when they drew near and they saw weapons in the old man, partly dyed with blood, protruding their hands, they were filled with amazement; from beneath a mass of bodies, some lifeless, and some among them began to comprehend others still warm and bleeding; touching the the great love of liberty which made a whole rigid face of the mortal enemy, the blanched people prefer death to living without it. It is cheek of the young mother yet faintly breathing,

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