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1781.

council, acquaints the presidency of Bombay, in BOOK

XIX. terms which have at least the merit of being plain and explicit, “ that the government of Bengal refuses to ratify even the smallest tittle of the treaty or convention of Worgaum ; that general Goddard was invested with full powers to conclude a paci. fication with the court of Poonah, on the terms prescribed in his instructions; and that, if the Mahratta ministers shall reject those proposals, and the Company be reduced to the necessity of defending its rights by an open war, a latitude of action is left to general Goddard to avail himself of the situation which fortune shall present to him. With respect to Moodajee Boosla, it is confessed that little hope is at this time entertained of his concurrence; but if, beyond expectation, the rajah shall discover a willingness to accept of the proposed alliance, instructions for that purpose are given to general Goddard. This 'negotiation is left," to adopt the strange and perplexed phraseology of this letter, “ to the sole management of general Goddard, in the authority of those instructions, until the period of their suspension by the refusal or such hesitation of Moodajee Boosla as he shall deem sufficient to warrant his declaring the negotiation suspended. The future renewal of this negotiation we reserve to be determined by our express orders, but without revoking the cre

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BOOK dentials and instructions already granted to general

Goddard respecting it.” It would be hard indeed if the governor, in the event of any sinister catastrophe, could not, under the impenetrable veil of such mysterious ambiguity of direction, screen himself from any disagreeable responsibility.

Mr. Hastings, in order to enforce the general system of policy contained in this letter, moreover declared to the council, “ that he never would suffer the object to be lost, for which the detachment now commanded by general Goddard was first appointed. This passed in the month of June 1779; and by a letter from general Goddard, dated October following, the governor and council are informed, as they had every reason to expect, that the peishwa's minister had, in plain and positive terms, declared to him that his master would not accede to the proposals made by general Goddard, or conclude peace with the English, unless Ragonaut Row, who had escaped, was delivered up to him, and Salsette surrendered to the Mahratta government; that, in consequence of this declara

tion, general Goddard had broken off the negaConfedera- tiation, and prepared for war." As was predicted powers of by Mr. Francis, the whole Mahratta race, including against the the Rajah of Berar, together with Hyder Ally English.

Khan, and the nizam or subah of the Decan, in the highest degree exasperated and inflamed at the

1

cy of the

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treachery of the English government, now entered BOOK into an alliance, in conjunction with the French, to expel the English nation from India ;-a combination of powers truly formidable, and which eventually shook the British empire in the East to its centre.

BOOK XX.

DISTRESS of the Government of Bengal. Ravages of Hyder

Ally in the Carnatic. Naval Encounters in the East Indies. Parliamentary Proceedings against Sir Thomas Rumbold. Sir Elijah Impey recalled from India. Ineffectual Resolutions of the House of Commons, and of the Court of Directors, for the Recall of Mr. Hastings from India. Military Operations in India. Resignation of Mr. Hastings. His Character. Attempt on the Isle of Jersey. Capture of St. Eustatia. Tobago taken by the French. Eustatia re-taken by the French. Naval ond Military Operations in America. Colonel Tarleton defeated at the Cowpens. Victory of Lord Cornwallis at Guildford. General Green's masterly Conduct. Lord Cornwallis's Successes in Virginia, Reverse of Fortune. Lord Cornwallis and his Army made Prisoners of War. Triumph of the Americans on the Capture of a second Royal Army. Commodore Johnstone's Expedition to the Cape of Good Hope. Obstinate Engagement between the English and Dutch Fleets off the Dogger Bank. Spirited Proceedings of the Parliament and People of Ireland,

XX.

BOOK In the progress of the war, thus wantonly pro

voked, the government of Bengal soon found itself 1781. reduced to the extremest necessity for money to of the gooi defray the enormous expence of its complex and of Bengal. extended operations. Rolling his baleful eyes

Distress

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around, the governor-general at length fixed them BOOK on the territory of Benares, a province depending on the viziriate of Oude, highly cultivated and populous, and the capital city of which, situated on the Ganges, has for ages been regarded by the Hindoos as a place of peculiar and indelible sanctity, as the seat and centre of their science, their laws, their philosophy, and religion. The late rajah of Benares, Bulwant Sing, during the wars between the vizier and the Company, had zealously attached himself to the English interest; and the court of directors, in their letter of May 26, 1768, acknowledge “ the signal services he had rendered them; and they express their hope, that the attention paid to those who have espoused their interests in this war will restore their reputation in Hindostan, and that the Indian powers will be convinced that no breach of treaty will ever have their sanction.” Two years

after this Bulwant Sing died, leaving the succession to his son, Cheyt Sing; and the council of Calcutta, Mr. Cartier being then presie dent, interposed their influence and authority at the court of Lucknow, in order to procure from the vizier just and reasonable terms of settlement, It was finally agreed, that the rajah should pay the vizier a peshcush, or fine, equivalent to about 200,0001., and that an annual advance of 30,0001. should be made to the stated tribute, A solemn

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