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be the most effectual barrier against the prevailing vices of the time. These were the persons whom Providence had appointed to assist them in this great work of educating the poor. Should they then, to overcome the scruples of a few individuals, (he said a few, for many of the dissenters supported the opinions of those who approved of the system) — should they, on account of the scruples of a few, do away all chance of success in this great undertaking, and forego the benefits of this excellent measure, by rejecting such assistance-by turning their backs on the clergy of England, whom Providence had raised up to give strength and stability

to the plan? He would say, No. And he had not the least doubt, when the dissenters themselves understood the nature of the measure, that their repugnance to it would be removed. But to proceed with the point respecting the election of the schoolmaster. The 4th provision under this head was, that the parson might, upon the examination of the successful candidate, reject him, and direct the parish officers to issue notices for a new election. The parson had here a veto--not a nominal, but a real and effectual veto. This would in a great measure prevent any in proper person from offering himself at the period of the election. If such a power did not exist, the appointment might become a mere matter of canvass, and persons not suited to the situation might have a majority. As, in ordination for the church, the bishop had a right to report a candidate for orders, minus efficientis literature ; so, in this case, he would allow the parson to pronounce on the qualifications of the candidate for the situation of master. The next head was that of visitation. The first regulation was, that the ordinary, from time to time, as he might think fit, might visit the school by himself ; secondly, by the Archdeacon; thirdly, by the Dean, within the limits of the Deanery; and, fourthly by the Chancellor. The visitor might, in the fifth place, remove the master, who might appeal to the ordinary, or, if the latter had visited, to the metropolitan; both of them deciding privately on the appeal. This latter regulation might be objected to. He had at first entertained doubts of its propriety; but, by the ancient law, the visitor was privileged to decide privately; and he felt that it would be extremely dangerous to introduce an innovation, without absolute necessicy. He had therefore adhered, in this regulation, to the spirit of the ancient law. 6thly. The visitor (subject to the appeal before-mentioned) might direct the master to be superannuated, with a pension not exceeding two-thirds of his salary, after a service of 15 years continuance. As no individual would be eligible to the situation after the age of 40, it was evident, by this regulation, that he need not remain in the situation after he had become too old to perform its duties. 7thly, The diocesan to make yearly returns of the names of masters, the number of children under their care, their salaries and average emoluments, with any remarks that might occur to him ; power being granted to him to apply to the parsons for such information as they might possess. This provision was similar to that contained in the Clergy Residence Acts (43 Geo. III. cap. 84. and 57 Geo. III. cap. 99.). The diocesan, under these acts, returned annually the number of non-residents; and the object he (Mr. Brougham) had in view, would be obtained by the introduction of an additional column to the return, in which might be inserted the state of the schools, &c., in the diocese. 8thly. The parson to be allowed at all times to enter the school and to examine the children. The dissenter might say, that he would be obliged to support this establishment, though he never could be prevailed on to send his child there. He, however, as the House would presently see, had taken care, in the formation of this measure, that none but very squeamish dissenters indeed would refuse to send their children to these schools. The school was now planted, endowed, and the master appointed ; and they consequently came to the admission of the children. The first regulation, on this point, was, that the parson, with the parish officers, as assessors, were, on the appointment of each new master, to fix the rate of quarter-pence-which was to be not less than 2d. nor more than 4d. per week. 2dly. This rate to be, in all cases, 2s. per quarter, or 2d. per week, for the children of persons receiving parish relief. If their parents could pay this small sum, so much the better. If they could not, he was sure the parish officers would defray the expence ; since he believed most of them felt that education was the surest means to check the growth of pauperism. Between those who were thus paid for, and those whose parents defrayed the charge, he would allow no distinction to be drawn. If there were a line chalked across the school-room, indicating that on one side of it there were gentlemen who paid, and, on the other, paupers who did not pay, it would be attended with the worst moral effects. He never would suffer the spirits of poor children to be bent down and broken by such a distinction. He would always, on the contrary, store their minds, as much as possible, with the seeds of independence. 3dly. The parson, with the parish officers, as assessors, might direct the master to admit certain children gratis; but no other distinction whatever to be observed, respecting such children, or pauper children. 4thly. Parents to be allowed to agree with the master for extra hours, or extra tuition, as they might think proper. The next head, under this branch of the subject, was the mode of education to be adopted. With reference to this part of the plan, it would be proposed, lst, That the parson, at each new appointment of master, should fix the course of teaching according to the state of the parish. He should also notify the times of vacation; not exceeding twice a-year, either a fortnight at each period, or a month at once : the regulation on this point to be fixed in some conspicuous part of the school-room. 2dly. The Scriptures alone to be taught, the parson fixing, if he pleased, the passages to be rehearsed from time to time. 3dly. No other religious book to be taught, nor any book, without the consent of the parson-nor any form of worship to be allowed in the school, except the Lord's Prayer and other passages from the Scriptures. With respect to this provision, he hoped he should not have the church against him here, as he had the dissenters against him on other points. But he conceived the church had no right to complain, when the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments, which were so intimately connected with the Christian religion generally, and which contained doctrines that were not the subject of dispute, were taught in the school. It was not necessary that the schoolmaster should teach any particular religion. It would be much better to leave the children to their Bible alone. It was, in many parts, a much better school book than any other. Now, so long as nothing but the Bible was taught, it appeared to him that no sectary should refuse to send his children to one of these schools. He did not wish to exclude them-he would much rather invite their attendance. 4thly. The children to attend church once every Sunday, either with their parents, or with the master : dissenters to take their children to their own churches or chapels. This regulation was founded on a very obvious reason. Though a dunce might go to church twice on a Sunday, he feared it would not make him more fond of the divine service. In his opinion, it was not a good plan to keep children more than an hour and a half at religious worship, on the day set apart for it. It was not the proper way to make them love and respect it. (Hear.) Let them go to church in the morning, and let their evening be devoted to that innocent play which was most congenial to their age. With respect to the children of dissenters going to their own churches or chapels, it was nothing more than was just and proper. Of course, no conscientious dissenter would allow his child to go to a Protestant church, any more than a Protestant would suffer his children to attend the service of the Church of Rome. He had heard it said “Compel all children, dissenters and others, to go to church;” and those who gave this advice founded their opinion on a passage in the report of a Committee, before which the Rev. Mr. Johnson was examined. That eminent man, who came from that part of the country which was proverbially well educated, was diffusing in this country the benefits which, at


home, he saw derived from the extension of knowledge. His school, in Baldwin's gardens, the central metropolitan school, was the finest, perhaps, in the world. That gentleman stated, that many dis- . senters sent their children to his school. But he (Mr. Brougham) denied that they were dissenters. They were what was termed “Anythingarians," or “ Nothingarians,”-individuals who had no over-ruling predilection for any particular creed; and consequently, wholly different from real dissenters. He would not call on individuals of this latter class to send their children to church. He would not gain converts to the church by duresse. He would little attempt to starve an individual into a churchman, by want of mental, as he would by want of bodily-food. 5thly. That there should be a school-meeting every Sunday evening, for teaching the Church Catechism, and other portions of the Liturgy, such as the parson might think fit to direct, and all children to attend except those of such dissenters as might object. Such a meeting as this would be attended by many children of that species of dissenters whom Mr. Johnson had described as attending his school at Baldwin's-gardens. 6thly. Reading, writing, and arithmetic,to be taught in all the schools, and to all the children of fit age. He had now gone through the three branches of the subject-planting and endowing the school,

-electing, superintending, and removing the master,—and admitting and teaching the children. Those three heads exhausted this part of the subject. He now came to that which was an appendix to the bill, but was of the utmost importance - namely, to make the present means of teaching the poor more efficient. He hoped that nothing contained in this part of the bill would be prejudicial to it, and that the House would not reject the measure till they saw something better. All that he had laid down in the 4th branch, it was true was confined to schools; but there was not one point of it that was not applicable to every charity whatsoever. And, if the suggestions here contained were extended to charities generally, he should have redeemed the pledge he had given to the house three years ago,

when he stated that he would devise a plan to remedy the errors in the existing system. The subject of what he had termed the appendix to the bill consisted of several branches : - 1st. Supplying defects in trusts. 2d. Enabling trustees to improve the administration of the funds. 3d. Enabling trustees to improve the disposal and application of funds. 4th. Proceeding for cases of failure, total or partial, in the object of the charity. And 5th. The necessary checks to operate on the whole of the four preceding branches. What he was about to state was founded entirely on the digest: and here he took the opportunity of amply acknowledging the beneficial labors of those who had collected such materials. He thought it right to state this, because he did not augur so well

of them when they commenced their functions. He, perhaps, was not wrong in exercising a fair jealousy on that occasion, since it seemed to be beneficial to have the eyes of a vigilant public narrowly directed to watch their proceedings; not with respect to their integrity, but their activity. He could not retract any thing he had said; but he made this concession, which was all an honorable man could be called on to make. With respect to the latter branches of the bill, for supplying the defects of trusts, it was proposed, first, that where the number of trustees was reduced below the quorum, the remainder should be allowed to fill up the vacancy. The second provision for supplying defects in trusts was, that where all the trustees were gone, the founder's heir at law should name trustees. The third was, that where no heir at law was to be found, the visitor should name trustees. The fourth, where there was neither visitor nor heir at law, that the legal estate, if above 51. a-year, should be vested in the clerk of the peace, to administer it under the order of the quarter-sessions. And the last provision under this head was, that where there were no trustees, heir at law, or visitor, and the estate was below 51. à year, it should be vested in any three of the charity commissioners. The next general head was the mode of enabling trustees to improve the administration of their funds. This was proposed to be done--1, by giving them powers to sell, borrow, or exchange, or by borrowing for the purposes of repairing ; of improving their revenue by new investments; of paying their debts, &c.;--2, by making all papers for conveyances or receipts free from stamps; and here again his bill came into contact with the right hon. gent.'s province ;---3, by enabling the receiver of the county to hold the money arising from sales, &c., until invested; and, 4, by a declaratory clause, that no trustee should be a party beneficially interested in the purchases, sales, exchanges, or loans, already mentioned. It might be thought extraordinary that such a clause should be necessary. It was not occasioned by any opinions of the Lord Chancellor or of Lord Kenyon. But ignoramuses, who had never seen a law-book, had pretended to quote the authority of the greatest lawyer that was ever in this country-he meant Lord Chancellor Eldon, (hear, hear,) for an absurdity of this kind, and therefore he had introduced this declaratory clause. The next general head in this branch of the subject, was that for enabling trustees to improve the application or disposal of their revenue. Under this head he should propose two declaratory enactments, to secure the intentions of founders, and two enacted clauses for altering the laws of the foundation in order to effect their obvious object. The first declaratory enactment was to allow trustees in all cases to contract with the master of a grammar-school, to teach reading, writing,

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