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stepped aside and let the people I met speak for themselves. Notes taken on the spot, and under all sorts of circumstances, — on horseback, in jolting wagons, by the firelight of a farm-house, or negro camp, sometimes in the dark, or in the rain, — have enabled me to do this in many cases with absolute fidelity. Conversations which could not be reported

in this way, were written out as soon as possible after they took · place, and while yet fresh in my memory. Idiomatic pecu

liarities, which are often so expressive of character, I have reproduced without exaggeration. To intelligent and candid men it was my habit to state frankly my intention to publish an account of my journey, and then, with their permission, to jot down such views and facts as they saw fit to impart. Sometimes I was requested not to report certain statements of an important nature, made in the glow of conversation ; these, not without regret, I have suppressed ; and I trust that in no instance have I violated a confidence that was reposed in me.

I may add that the conversations recorded are generally of a representative character, being selected from among hundreds of such ; and that if I have given seemingly undue prominence to any subject, it has been because I found it an absorbing and universal topic of discussion.

MAY, 1866.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV. - SOUTH MOUNTAIN.

Hagerstown. – Valley of the Antietam. - Boonsboro'. - The Rebels in Maryland.

- View of the Mountain. - The Ascent. - Scene of General Reno's Death. - Reb-

els buried in a Well. - A Mountaineer's Story. - View of Catoctin Valley. - Strong

Rebel Position. - Patriot Graves. — Antietam Valley at Sunset................40

CHAPTER V.- The FIELD OF ANTIETAM.

Rebel Line of Retreat. - Keedysville. - Brick Church Hospital. - Porter and his

Reserves. - Banks of the Antietam. - Scenes at the Straw-Stacks. - Unfortunate

Farmers. - Hospital Cemetery. - The Corn Field. — The Old Ploughman. -A

Lesson for Vanity. - A Soldier's Name. - The Dunker Church. - Sharpsburg.

- Shelter from the Rain. - Southern Pronunciation. — Burnside's Bridge. - An-

cient and Modern Heroes. - Antietam National Cemetery. - The Battle........44

CHAPTER VI. - Dowx THE RIVER TO HARPER'S FERRY.

Search for a Vehicle. — “Mr. Bennerhalls." - Mr. Benner without the “halls." -

Leaving Sharpsburg. - Mountain Scenery. - Capt. Speaker's Narrative. - Sur-

render of Harper's Ferry. - Escape of Twenty-two Hundred Cavalry.- Capture

of Rebel Wagon Train. - Morning in Greencastle. - Arrival at the Ferry.....57

CHAPTER VII. - AROUND HARPER'S FERRY.

River and Mountain Scenery. - Maryland Heights. -- John Brown's Engine-House.

- Reminiscence of John Brown. - Political Inconsistency. - Negro from Shenan-

doah Valley. - Folly of Secession.......

CHAPTER VIII. - A TRIP TO CHARLESTOWN.

Railroad Passengers. – A Desolated Country. - Farmers and Land. - A Dilapidated

Town. - Meeting an Acquaintance. - Boarding-House Fare. - People and the

Government Policy. - Charlestown Jail and Court-House. - John Brown's Trial. -

"His Soul Marching On." - A One-armed Confederate. - John Brown's Gallows.

– Scene from the Scaffold. — The Church and its Uses ....

CHAPTER IX. - A SCENE AT THE WHITE HOUSE.

Washington. - A Crowd of Pardon-Seekers. — President's Reception..........

CHAPTER X. - BULL Rux.

From Alexaudria to Manassas. - Manassas Junction. — “ Overpowered," but not

Whipped. - Ambulance Wagon. - The Driver and the Roads. – Scene ot the

First Bull Run. — Soldiers' Monument. - Luncheon in the Woods. - Scene of the

Second Bull Run. — The Monument. - Groverton. — The two Battles and their

Lessons. — The Stone House. — Miscegenated Cider. – Virginia Negroes.......81

CHAPTER XI. — VISIT TO MOUNT VERNON.

Down the Potomac. – Landing at Mt. Vernon. - A Throng of Pilgrims. — Tomb of

Washington. -Character of Washington. — Mansion and Out-houses. - Girl at

the Wash-tub. - Washington's Well. — Shade-Trees. — Within the Mansion. -

Relics. — The Portico. — Washington's Love of Home. — Thunder-storm.......91

CHAPTER XII. — “STATE PRIDE."

Acquia Creek. – Railroad and Stage-Coaches. – View of Fredericksburg. - Crossing

the Rappannock. - Ruins of the Town -"A Son of Virginia." -"State Pride"

and "Self-Conceit." - Virginia and South Carolina. - Back in the Union. -

Down at the Hotel. — Another Name for State Pride.........

CHAPTER XIII. — THE FIELD OF FREDERICKSBURG.

The Situation. — The Stone Wall of History. - A Rebel Eye-witness. - Stripping

the Dead. - Strange Breastworks. — Fidelity of a Dog. Gen. Lee's “ Human-

ity." - Private Cemetery - The Marye House. — Negro who did n't see the

Fight. - Southern Consistency. – Dissolution of the Rebel Army. – The Buried

Dead. - House of Washington's Mother.- Mary Washington's Monument. - The

Lacy House. – Scene from the Windows. — Storming of Fredericksburg. .....106

CHAPTER XIV. - To CHANCELLORSVILLE.

'Lijah and his Buggy.- A Three-Dollar Horse. — Trade in Soldiers' Clothing. -

Small Farmers. - Right Ignorant but Right Sharp. — Sedgwick's Retreat. — Farms

and Crops. - Views of Emancipation. - Poor Whites and Niggers. — The Man

that killed Harrow. -- Along the Plank-Road. - Tales of the Old Times. - Chancel-

lorsville Farm. - What was under the Weeds. - Bones for the Bone-Factory.

Chancellorsville Burying-Ground. — Death of Stonewall Jackson..........

CHAPTER XV. - The WILDERNESS.

Days of Anxiety. - Inflexible Spirit of the People. - Locust Grove. - The Wilder.

ness Church. — Relics of the Battle. - Skeletons above Ground. – Wilderness

Cemetery. - A Summer Shower. - The Wounded in the Fire. — The Rainbow..123

CHAPTER XVI. - SPOTTSYLVANIA COURT-HOUSE.

Elijah “Cut.” — Richard “H." Hicks. — Poor Whites and the War. – Dead Men's

Clothes. — A “Heavy Coon Dog." - Traces of the Battle. – View of the Court-

House. - Grant's Breastworks. - County Clerk. - Whites and Blacks in the

County. - Ignorance of the Lower Classes. — The Negro "Fated"............129

CHAPTER XVII. - THE FIELD OF SPOTTSYLVANIA.

The Tavern-Keeper's Relics. - A Union Officer's Opinions. — The Landlord's Corn-

field. — Rebel and Yankee Troops. — Scene of the Decisive Conflict. - Graves of

Spottsylvania.- Women “ Chincapinnin."- Leaves from a Soldier's Testament..137

CHAPTER XVIII. — “ON TO RICHMOND."

A Bubble Vanished. - Desolate Scenery. - Virginia and Massachusetts. - Ashton. -

Suburbs. - Northern Men in Richmond. — Appearance of the City ...........143

CHAPTER XIX. - THE BURNT DISTRICT.

Ruins of Richmond. - Why the Rebels burnt the City.- Panic of the Inhabitants. -

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIII.-MARKETS AND FARMING.

Mixed Population of Richmond.-Market Carts. - Scene at the Stalls. — Vegetable

Gardens. — Experience of a Jersey Farmer.-Farms for Sale..

CHAPTER XXIV.- IN AND AROUND RICHMOND.

St. John's Church and Patrick Henry. - St. Paul's and Jeff. Davis. -- State and

Confederate Capitol. - Negro Auction-Rooms. - Hollywood and Oakwood Ceme-

teries. - General Lee's Head-Quarters Wagon. - Rebel Conscript Camp. – A

Champion of Slavery. - A Rebel. - Secesh Song..........................182

CHAPTER XXV. - PEOPLE AND POLITICS.

A Conservative Union Man. - A Confederate Soldier's Opinions. - Female Seces-

sionists. - Confederate Soldiers and the Ladies. — “Bomb-proof" Situations. --

Governor Pierpoint. - Advantages to Northern Business Men. - State Debt and

Finances. - Virginia Enterprise. - Coal Mines on the James. - Speech of a Played-

Out Politician. - A Rival Candidate. - Political Viewg. - New Men.........187

CHAPTER XXVI. - FORTIFICATIONS. - DUTCH GAP. - FAIR OAKS.

Ride with Major K-.- Forts and Earthworks. - Winter Quarters of the Army

of the James. — Affair at Laurel Hill. - At New-Market Heights. — Gallop across

the Country. - Butler's Canal. - Origin of the Name - Dutch Gap." – Cox's

House. - Out on the Nine-Mile Road. - Fair Oaks Station. --Seven Pines. -

Charge of Sickles's Brigade. - Savage's Station. — Two Sundays............198

CHAPTER XXVII. - IN AND ABOUT PETERSBURG.

From Richmond to the “Cockade City." - Evening with Judge Story of

Two Brothers. - Shelling of Petersburg. - Black Population. – Ride with Colonel

E- .- The "Crater." - Forts Hell and Damnation. - Forts Morton and Sted-

man. — “Petersburg Express.” – A Beautiful but Silent City. - Signal Tower..205

CHAPTER XXVIII. - JAMES RIVER AND FORTRESS MONROE.

City Point. - Landmarks of Famous Events. - Hotel under the Fortress. – Jeff.

Davis's Private Residence. — Circuit of the Ramparts. - Pardoned Rebel. .215

CHAPTER XXIX. - ABOUT HAMPTON.

Burning of Hampton. - Freedmen's Settlements. – Visits to the Freedmen......219

CHAPTER XXX.- A GENERAL VIEW OF VIRGINIA.

Fertility - Natural Advantages. - Old Fields. - Hills and Valleys. - Products. -

Value of Land. - Manufactures. - Oysters. - Common Schools. - Freedmen's

Schools. — Negro Population. – Old Prejudice. — Wages. — Negroes in Tobacco

Factories. — Freedmen's Bureau. - Secession. – Railroads. — Finances. — Pros-

pects.....................................................................224

CHAPTER XXXI. — THE “SWITZERLAND OF AMERICA.”

East Tennessee. - Home of President Johnson. - Knoxville. — An Old Nigger-

Dealer. - Table-Talk. - East Tennesseeans and Niggers. - Neighborhood Feuds.

- Persecution and Retaliation.-Story of a Loyal Refugee. ...................237

CHAPTER XXXII. -- EAST TENNESSEE FARMERS.

Description of the People. — “Domestic." - School-Fund and Schools. - Sects. -

Farming. - Horses and Mules. — Grazing. - Want of a Market. — Products. —

Mines....................................

.......................................243

CHAPTER XXXIII. - IN AND ABOUT CHATTANOOGA.

View from Cameron Hill. – Mixed Population. - Post School. — Freedmen's Schools.

- Freedmen. — Contraband Village. — Parade of a Colored Regiment.........248

CHAPTER XXXIV.- LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN.

A Bag of Grist. - Ascent of the Mountain. - The General's Orderly. - View from

Point Lookout. — "Battle in the Clouds." — “Old Man of the Mountain."......255

CHAPTER XXXV. - THE SOLDIERS' CEMETERY.

National Cemetery of Chattanooga. — The Cave. — Interring the Dead........260

CHAPTER XXXVI: — Mission RIDGE AND CHICKAMAUGA.

Storming the Ridge. — Rossville Gap. — A Dreary Scene. - The “ Deadenings." -

Dyer Farm.-Camp of Colored Soldiers. - African Superstition. -Disinterring

the Dead. — The Blunder of Chickamauga. - General Thomas's Fight.........263

. CHAPTER XXXVII.- FROM CHATTANOOGA TO MURFREESBORO'.

Traces of Military Operations. _ “Union Men.” – Passing the Cumberland Moun-

tains. - The Country. - Story of Two Brothers. - "Little Johnny Reb." - Rail-

road Travel. - General Hazen's Head-Quarters. — Rebel Persecutions........270

CHAPTER XXXVIII. --STONE RIVER.

Fortress Rosecrans. — Rebel and Union Lines. — McCook Surprised. — Round For-

est. — Cemetery of Hazen's Brigade. – New National Cemetery............. 275

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