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menacing front of our address. Feb. 9, 1775, Parliament had presented an address to the king declaring that no part of his authority over the colonies should be relinquished. For the use of front, see Othello iii, 80.

bills of pains and penalties. Two of these bills were the Boston Port Bill and the Grand Penal Bill.

ideas of free grace. Voluntary concessions. 1 [12] it has declared

and has admitted. By the very fact of agreeing to Lord North's resolutions.

1 (13] I shall endeavour to show. See | 124 to 1 131. T (14] the object. The colonies.

1 [16] minima. Trifles. De minimis non curat lex, the law takes no account of trifles. The logical subject of this sentence is America.

1 [17] ground has been trod. The matter has beer discussed. some days ago. March 16. person. Mr. Glover, esteemed a poet in his day.

at your bar. The bar is a rod across the entry to the chamber in which Parliament sits. Members and officers alone are admitted within the bar.

9 [19] comparative state. A statement making compari

sons.

on your table. Officially before you.

Davenant. Appointed inspector-general of exports and imports in 1705.

1 [20 The African. The slave ade, principally; hence rightfully regarded by Burke as a branch or England's export trade to the colonies, since the slaves were taken to the colonies and sold. T [25] It is good, etc. Mark ix, 5. Clouds, indeed, etc. Addison, Cato V, i:

The wide th’unbounded Prospect lies before me

And Shadows, Clouds, and Darkness, rest upon it. Lord Bathurst. Born 1684; took his seat in Parliament in 1705; died Sept., 1775. angel. The guardian angel.

the fourth generation, the third prince. George the Third was the grandson of George the Second.

made Great Britain. By the Act of Union (1707) Engand anal Scotland became one.

a new one.

higher rank. Bathurst was made Earl in 1772.

His son was made Lord Chancellor with the title of Baron Apsley the year previous.

taste of death. Matthew xvi, 28.

1 [28] deceive the burthen. Lighten the burden by b. guiling the burden-bearer. A Latinism (fallere).

1 [29] corn. Grain.

Roman charity, etc. A reference to an old Roman story, one version of which is that Cymon, having been condemned to die by starvation, was kept alive by his daughter Xanthippe, who visited him in prison and nourished him from her own breasts.

T [30] Serpent. A constellation within the Antarctic Circle.

Falkland Island national ambition. Spain and England disputed the ownership of these islands in 1770. Many Englishmen thought them not worth fighting for. Spain yielded before war broke out. These islands were supply stations for whalers.

run the longitude. Literally, sail east or west; here, southwest. vexed. Agitated. A Latinism (vexare). 1 [31] complexions. Temperament. military art. Several army men in the House, including General Burgoyne, had made speeches advocating the use of force against the colonies.

wield the thunder. An allusion to Jupiter and his thunderbolts. Lord North as prime minister might be said to "wield the thunder of the state."

1 [34] British strength. The colonists were Englishmen. It was for their rights as Englishmen that they were contending.

a foreign enemy. France or Spain might take advantage of England when England was engaged in war with her colonies.

[35] Our ancient indulgence. Our former kindness to the colonies. our penitence. Our recent policy of coercion.

[37] restive. Properly means stubborn. Here used in the sense of restless,

1 [38] when. In the times preceding the establishment of the Commonwealth.

sensible object. An object capable of being perceived by the senses.

ancient commonwealths. Rome and the states of Greece. several orders. Several ranks or classes of the people. greatest spirits. Pym, Hampden, Vane. 1 [39] popular. Controlled by the people. T[40] of that kind. Dissenters from the Church of Eng.

land.

dissidence of dissent. Dissent carried to the extreme. Matthew Arnold uses this phrase (of Hooker's) in Culture and Anarchy, ch. I, 21.

the establishments. The state churches. 1[41] Gothic. Teutonic.

were the Poles. Burke uses the past tense were because he is speaking of the Poles before 1772, the year of the Partition of Poland between Austria, Russia and Prus. sia.

1 [42] by successful chicane. Gen. Gage forbade the col. onists from calling any town meetings after August 1, 1774. They evaded the order by adjourning over the first to a time definite; by continuing this process of keeping alive the same adjourned meeting they obviated the necessity of calling a meeting. Consult Hosmer, Samuel Adams. 322 23.

friend. Thurlow, the attorney-general, who was taking notes of Burke's speech. on the poor. The lowest tier of benches, occupied by members of the cabinet.

[43] winged ministers of vengeance. Ships, which are compared to the eagle that carried Jupiter's thunderbolts in its pounces, or talons.

So far shalt thou go. Job xxxviii, 11.
1 [45] with all its imperfections, etc. Hamlet I, v.
Lord Dunmore. Governor of Virginia

1 [46] abrogated the ancient government of Massachusetts. In 1774, an ct of Parliament forbade the people of Massachusetts to hold town meetings except by permission of the royal governor; gave to the royal governor the power to appoint and remove at pleasure all judges and magis

trates, including sheriffs, and charged the sheriffs with the duty of summoning jurymen. The object was of course to make the courts mere creatures of the royal will.

1 [47] inconvenient. Troublesome.

giving up the colonies. This was seriously proposed and de. fended by Dr. Tucker, Dean of Gloucester, in 1774, on the ground that England would have the trade of the colonies whether she owned them or not, if she offered them the best markets.

1 [50] English Tartars. The allusion is to the hordes of Tartars and Mongols who under Genghis Khan (1160–1227) and Timour (1336–1405) swept over Asia, conquering as they went.

Increase and multiply. Paradise Lost X, 730. Genesis i, 28.

children of men. Psalms cxv, 16.
wax and parchment. Legal forms.
1 [53] your speech. Matthew xxvi, 73. Judges xii, 6.
1 [54] burn their books. Acts xix, 19.
chargeable. Expensive.

[55] has had its advocates. Dr. Johnson in his pam. phlet, Taxation no Tyranny, favored this plan. In 1775, Governor Dunmore of Virginia threatened to try this plan.

other people. For instance, the Romans after Cannae armed 8,000 slaves and allowed them to earn their freedom by valor.

| [56] their refusal. In the years preceding the Revolu. tion attempts were repeatedly made by the legislatures of Virginia and other southern colonies to restrict the slave trade, but the English government prevented the restriction each time, in the interest of English traders.

Angola. On the west coast of Africa. Noted for its activity in the slave trade.

Guinea captain. The captain of an English ship engaged in the Guinea trade.

T [57] Ye gods, etc. Quoted as an example of hyperbole in chapter xi of The Art of Sinking in Poetry written by Arbuthnot, Pope and Swift.

1 [59] Sir Edward Coke. At Raleigh's trial for treason (1603), Coke, then attorney general, assailed Raleigh in most unjust and brutal terms: “ Thou art a monster!"

“ Thou hast a Spanish heart, and thyself art a spider of hell!" Raleigh was accused of having a part in the plots against James the First.

1 [60] ex vi termini. From the meaning of the word; from the force of the term.

T [61] civil litigant. A party to a suit in which a right (not a crime) is the subject of dispute; in this case, England's right to tax the colonies. a culprit. Because, if Parliament decides that has the right to tax, America is criminal in resisting.

[62] those very persons. The majority in Parliament. declaring a rebellion. February 9, 1775. formerly addressed. February 13, 1769. addressed. Petitioned the king.

1 [66] startle. Are startled. Startle is now used transi. tively.

great Serbonian bog, etc. Paradise Lost II, 592-594. The great Serbonian bog is Lake Serbonis between Damiata, a town near the mouth of the Nile and Mt. Casius, on the coast farther east.

[67] unity of spirit. Ephesians iv, 3. 1 [69] a revenue act. The Stamp Act, repealed in 1766.

understood principle. As an act for raising revenue, not for controlling trade.

1 [70] American financiers. Members of Parliament who still think America can be made to yield England a revenue.

have further views. Will keep asking for further conces. sions.

trade laws. The Navigation Acts were the chief trade laws. a gentleman, etc. Mr. Rice.

1 [71] acts of navigation. One of these acts secured to England the lion's share of the carrying trade by forbidding every other nation to bring to England or to her colonies ony thing but the actual products of that nation; another for oade the colonies to send exports, directly, anywhere except to England or to other English colonies; by another, all exports from the colonies to England must be shipped in American or English vessels.

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