« PreviousContinue »
24. Matthew Arnold says that Burke "is so great because, almost alone in England, he brings chought to bear upon politics; he saturates politics with thought.” Of what passage in this speech does this statement seem to you to be especially true?
25. “Burke bases his reasoning on facts in human nature.
Verify this. 26. Professor Goodrich says that the secret of Burke's richness of thought "consisted, to a great extent, in his habit of viewing things in their causes, or tracing them out in their results." Verify.
27. Report the steps in the reductio aa absurdum
28. What form of argument is used in (81) and 188)? Notice the use of words of comparison, more, less, as, as much.
29. Do you find evidences of a powerful imagination in this speech? Do you find any poetic touches?
30. Which of the following adjectives might be used truthfully in speaking of the style of Burke's Speech on Conciliation? Cite passages in support of your answer. Suggestive, picturesque, pathetic, sublime, serious, sincere, keen, judicious, ironical, beautiful, grand, clear, emphatic, precise, simple, colloquial, harsh, intense, diffuse, repetitious
A STUDY OF THE LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE
SPEECH ON CONCILIATION
One reading, preferably the second or the third, may profitably be devoted exclusively to a study of the logical structure of the speech, to an examination of the arguments separately and in their inter-relations. Experience has shown that the arguments will be best appreciated if the paragraphs are condensed into sentences and these sentences are arrayed according to their rank in the argumentative scheme. This kind of work is difficult, but rewards the pupil by giving him a comprehension of the argument such as he can hardly gain in any other way. Fully onehalf of the time devoted to this speech may profitably be spent in the making of a Brief. The following suggestions are intended to afford the pupil needed help towards making his Brief. A Brief of Burke's introduction to the speech is given in full in order to illustrate the form preferred. Complete sentences, reading as reasons, should everywhere be insisted upon. The numbers given below in parentheses refer to paragraphs of the speech. Directions to the pupil are in brackets. Material not in brackets stands as part of the final Brief. It will pay to adhere to the form and system of numoering guggested, and to draw off a complete Brief. Before beginning to make the Brief Proper, let the pupil read the first fourteen paragraphs of the speech, comparing them one by one with the Brief of the introduction given below. Let him note that the main thought of paragraph (1) may be expressed in a single, complete sentence, as (I) below; that the same is true of (2); but that (3) and (4) belong together, forming a contrast; that (5), (6), (7), and (8) also belong together, since they give Burke's excuses for speaking; that (9) gives Burke's proposition; that (10), (11), (12), and (13) belong together because they contrast Burke's plan with Lord North's and show what advantage the former gains from the fact that the latter has been presented; that (13) also adds a new thought (VII below); that (14) closes the introduction by dividing the subject preparatory to the argument proper. Arranging this material in the orderly form of a brief, we have the following.
ment another opportunity to choose a plan for
managing the American colonies (1). II. Having studied the subject, Burke has arrived at
fixed ideas of imperial policy (2). III. Burke's sentiments have not changed (3); but
Parliament has frequently changed its policy, with disastrous results (4).
IV. Burke ventures to address the House, for,
duce their plan (5).
situation makes it his duty to do good
if he can (7). C. Burke's insignificance will ensure a discus
sion of his plan wholly on its merits (8). V. Burke's proposition is to secure peace by
moving the grounds of difference (9). VI. Burke's plan, simple and very different from
Lord North's (10), derives advantages from
has voted that the idea of conciliation is
admissible (11). B. By accepting Lord North's plan, the House
has voted that the idea of conciliation is admissible previous to submission by the
colonies (12) C. By accepting Lord North's plan, the House
has voted that complaints in regard to taxation not wholly unfounded
(12). D. Burke's plan is based upon the same prin
ciple as Lord North's, that of concilia
tion (13) VII. The proposal for peace ought to originate with
England, the superior power (13). VIII. The two leading questions are: Whether Eng
land ought to concede; and, What the concession should be; the determination of which depends upon the actual condition and circumstances of America and not upon abstractions or theories (14).
A. ENGLAND SHOULD CONCILIATE
AMERICAN COLONIES (15-64), FOR, I. The nature and condition of America require
conciliation (15), for-[Read (15-30), and having discovered A, B, C and D, set them down in complete sentences reading as reasons for I.
Follow the form of the Introduction VI]. II. Those who advocate force against America are
wrong (31), for-[Read (32-35), and having
found the reasons, set them down as before]. III. [Express (36) in form similar to I above. A (37)
is followed by reasons, which should be marked
1, 2, etc.] IV. This unnatural contention has shaken all fixed
principles of government (45-46), for--[Mark
the three evil effects A, B and C]. V. Of the only three ways of dealing with America,
we must adopt the third (47), for,
American spirit) is impossible (48-57) for
given, mark them a, b, c, etc.). B. [Supply the thought. Keep the form of
sentence used for A just above.] C. The third way, to comply with the Ameri
can spirit, we must, therefore, adopt (64).
B. THE MEASURES OF CONCILIATION ADOPTED SHOULE
SATISFY THE AMERICAN COMPLAINT AGAINST
TAXATION (65-88), FOR,
boon they ask (65). II. To refuse satisfaction on the ground of a legal