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assembly duly confirmed, a settled salary to the offices of the chief justice and other judges of the superior courts, it may be proper that the said chief justice and other judges of the superior courts of such colony shall hold his and their office and offices during their good behaviour; and shall not be removed therefrom, but when the said removal shall be adjudged by his Majesty in council, upon a hearing on complaint from the general assembly, or on a complaint from the governor, or council, or the house of representatives, severally, of the colony in which the said chief justice and other judges have exercised the

said office." (155) “That it may be proper to regulate the courts

of admiralty, or vice-admiralty, authorized by the fifteenth chapter of the fourth of George III., in such a manner, as to make the same more commodious to those who sue, or are sued, in the said courts; and to provide for the more decent maintenance of the judges of the same.'

QUESTIONS ON THE LITERARY AND RHETORI: CAL QUALITIES OF THE SPEECH ON

CONCILIATION

One reading of the speech, preferably the first or the second, should be devoted to a study of the literary and rhetorical qualities. The following questions are intended merely to indicate topics for study. The work may be extended as time, and the attainments of the class permit. The order of the questions is perhaps not the best for all classes. Some of the questions may be assigned for reports or brief essays. Numbers in parentheses refer to paragraphs of the speech:

1. What power over words is seen in the use of event (1), lelicate (2), comprehend (4), capital (12), occasional (16), auspicious (25), the genius, (25), determine (36), sensible (38), auspicate (139)? Compare the etymological meaning of these words with their usual meaning.

2. What argumentative or persuasive force is there in the use of squabbling (10), auction (10), indifferently (13), partial (16), occasional (16), adored (38) Find other single words which condense a whole argument.

3. One element of Burke's power is his use of specific, concrete, incisive terms. Find examples in (42) last sentence, (43), (50), (56), or other paragraphs.

4. What characteristic of vocabulary is seen in such a pass (5), play the game out (5), produce our hand (5), Lave so far in to (6), a good while (8), knock down the hammer (10), shot a good deal (12), smartness of debate (42), mighty well (42), have done the business (45), are wished to look (99)? Find other examples.

5. The words which Burke uses close together fit one another's meaning; as, “In this posture things stood(5). While his phraseology is not always smooth and nice, he makes effective phrases. Find illustrations in (25), (66), and (72), or in other paragraphs.

6. What does Burke's phraseology owe to the English Bible?

7. Similes, metaphors, and tropes (slightly figurative turns of expression) are very numerous in all of Burke's writings. Cite a few examples from this speech.

8. Burke uses a good many reference words and words of transition and connection to make it easy for the reader to follow his course of reasoning. Mark all there are in (36). Note words and phrases of transition at the beginning of many paragraphs.

9. What evidences of the oratorical temperament are seen in the diction of (1), (4), (15), (25), (30), (43), (45)?

10. Does Burke use the rhetorical question and the exclamation?

11. Find cases of parallelism and balance in sentences. A case of climax. Notice in the Brief Proper the forward march of the three main propositions.

12. Find a wise political maxim expressed in a short sentence in (10), in (13), (45), (59), (65), (66), (83), (88), (96), (120), and (139).

13. Examine the variety in length and structure and kinds of sentences in (25), (45), (55), (56).

14. What characteristics of the introduction are perhaps explained by the fact that he knew his audience to be strongly opposed to his views?

15. Do you find that usually each paragraph deals with only one topic? that it is possible to state the principal thought of each paragraph in a single sentence? What quality of composition is indicated by these facts?

16. In (59) point out the sentence which best expresses the topic. Show how each of the other sentences introduces, or proves, or repeats, or explains, or exemplifies, the main idea.

17. Show in what orderly sequence the ideas of (60) come along. Make a list of them. Notice the proportion of space and the relative prominence given to each of them. Do these correspond with their importance relatively to the thought?

18. In the group (47-64) have we the inductive or the deductive order of thought? How is it in most of the speech? Is Burke's plan fully announced at the beginning? Are we kept in sus. pense as to just what Burke wants?

Where do we find out in full?

19. In (47) Burke says he would patiently go round and round the subject, and survey it minutely in every possible aspect.” Burke has been accused of making too many fine distinctions in his speeches. Do you think the criticism just? Is there a distinction made in this speech that is unnecessary to the argument? Consult the Brief Proper.

20. Do you find any passages that would sound too highly oratorical in a speech nowadays? How about the Latin quotations?

21. Notice a few of the quotations and allusions and see if there is not a bit of argument or persuasion concealed in each of them. Point it out. Can you find any purely ornamental passage in this speech

22. What passages in this speech indicate especially that Burke was a believer in the “sacredness of law," and that he reverenced the past? How often does he appeal to experience as proof of what

he says?

23. If you had read nothing about Burke the man, could

you tell from this speech what some of his personal qualities (mental, moral, religious) must have been? Could you tell also whether or not he had read much? what his favorite books were? what his political ideals were?

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