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Whiston, in his Essay towards restoring the true Text of the Old Testament. Carpzov adheres to the high notions which in his time continued to prevail, con. cerning the integrity of the Hebrew Text : but (Bishop Marsh remarks) “ if proper allowance be made on this account, it will be found to be a very useful work, and replete with information on the subject of Hebrew criticism." (Leetures on Divinity, part ii. p. 133.)

9. Introductio ad Libros Canonicos Veteris Testamenti omnes, præcognita Critica et Historica ac Auctoritatis vindicias exponens. Adornata studio D. J. Gottlob Carpzovii. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1731 ; 2d. edit. 1741.

The reader will here find very learned disquisitions upon every book of the Old Testament, and a catalogue of the most approved writers on most of them. “

“Carpzov was a man of profound erudition and indefatigable industry. His work contains the principal materials, which had been afforded by his predecessors, per. spicuously arranged, and augmented by his own valuable observations." (Bp. Marsh.)

10. The Sacred Interpreter : or a practical Introduction towards a beneficial reading and thorough understanding of the Holy Bible. By David Collyer, Vicar of Great Coxwell, Berks. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1746 ; Carlisle, 1796. Last edition, Oxford, 1815.

“ The author of this work lived in the former part of the last century; it not only went through several editions in England, but in 1750 was translated into German. It is calculated for readers in general, and is a good popular preparation for the study of the Holy Scriptures." (Bp. Marsh.)

11. J. A. Dathii Opuscula ad Interpretationem et Crisin Veteris Testamenti. Edidit E. F. C. Rosenmüller. Lipsiæ, 1796. 8vo.

12. J. G. Eichhorn Einleitung ins Alte Testament.- Introduction to the Old Testament, by J. G. Eichhorn. Leipzig, 1803–12. 4 vols. 8vo. Latest and best edition.

13. J. G. Eichhorn, Einleitung ins Neue Testament. Leipzig, 1804-1815. 3 vols. 8vo.

Professor Eichhorn succeeded the celebrated Michaelis in the Divinity Chair at Gottingen. His works are considered classical on the subject of Biblical Criti. cism. Proposals were issued, many years since, by the Rev. Dr. Lloyd, Regius Professor of Hebrew at the university of Cambridge, for publishing by subscrip. tion a translation from the German of Professor Eichhorn's Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament. But the translation never appeared. Of this work the reader will find a copious analysis in the Monthly Review (N. S.) vol. xxiii. pp. 481-497. Of the Introduction to the New Testament no notice has hitherto appeared in the English Literary Journals. Eichhorn is one of those German Divines, who reject the inspiration of Moses; and he is of opinion that the great Jewish Legislator compiled his primæval history from distinct sagas or traditional documents. A notice of his eccentric hypothesis relative to the Apocalypse will be found infra, in No. VII. Sect. VI. 9 2. among the commentators on the Rerelation of Saint John.

14. Fabricy (Père), Des Titres Primitives de la Revelation ; ou considerations sur l'Integrité du. Texte Original de l'Ancien Testament. Rome, 1772. 8vo.

This work contains much curious learning, urged with a considerable degree of ingenuity, in favour of the Masoretic system.

15. J. F. Fischeri Prolusiones de Versionibus Græcis Librorum Veteris Testamenti. Lipsiæ, 1772. 8vo.

16. Nicolai Fulleri Miscellanea Sacra, cum Apologia contra V. Cl. Johannem Drusium. Lugd. Bat. 1622. 8vo. edit. opt. Also in the last volume of the Critici Sacri.

17. Institutes of Biblical Criticism, or Heads of the Course of Lectures on that subject, read in the University and King's College

of Aberdeen. By Alexander Gerard, D. D. Edinburgh, 1808. 8vo.

“ Of general and elementary treatises," on sacred criticism, “there is none which is more to be recommended, either for perspicuity or correctness, than the Institutes of Biblical Criticism, published by Dr. Gerard, Professor of Divinity at Aberdeen.” (Bp. Marsh.)

18. Gesenii (Gulielmi) Anecdota Oxoniensia, Tomus Primus. Lipsiæ, 1822. 4to.

This volume comprises two fasciculi, the first of which contains the Samaritan Psalms, with an Arabic version and notes : in the second fasciculus, there is a dissertation on Syriac Lexicons, with specimens of the hitherto inedited lexicons of Bar Ali and Bar Buhluli.

19. Salomonis Glassii Philologia Sacra; qua totius S. S. Veteris et Novi Testamenti Scripturæ tum Stylus et Literatura, tum Sensûs et Genuine Interpretationis Ratio et Doctrina, libris quinque expenditur ac traditur. Lipsiæ, 1725. 4to. Best Edition.

An“ inestimable and immortal work, than which none can be more useful for the interpretation of Scripture, as it throws an uncommon degree of light upon the language and phrascology of the inspired writers.” (Mosheim's Eccl. Hist. vol. v. p. 296.) The first edition was printed at Jena in 1623, and was followed by several others at the same place, in 1643, 1663, and 1663; at Frankfort, in 1653; at Leipsic, in 1691, 1705, 1713, and at Amsterdam in 1711, all in quarto. The first and second books treat on the style and meaning of the sacred writers ; the third and fourth on Sacred Grammar, and the fifth on Sacred Rhetoric. To the edition of 1705 and the subsequent impressions is annexed a treatise, by Glas. sius, on Sacred Logic, first published by Olearius at Jena in 1704. A new edition of this work was published in four volumes 8vo. at Leipsic, in 1776, 1795, 1797, by the Professors Dathe and Bauer, entitled, Salomonis Glassii Philologia Sacra his Temporibus accommodata. The first volume, in two parts, edited by Dathe, contains the treatises de Grammatica et Rhetorica Sacra, which are materially im proved without debasing Glassws's pious and learned expositions of Scripture by his own speculations. The second volume, edited by Prof. Bauer of Altorf, contains the Critica Sacra. Glassius had adopted Buxtorf's high notions concerning the integ. rity of the Hebrew text, which are properly modified in Bauer's revision of the work. The third volume contains Glassius's second book, which treats on the interpretation of Scripture : as it is frequently to be met with in a detached form, it is noticed in p. 723. infra, among the works on that branch of sacred philology:

20. A Key to the Old Testament and the Apocrypha : or an account of their several books, their contents and authors, and of the times when they were respectively written. By Robert Gray, D. D. 8vo. London, 1790.

The very numerous editions which have been printed of this valuable work, attest the estimation in which it is deservedly held. It was undertaken in imitation of the late Bp. Percy's well known and often printed “ Key to the New Testament, giving an account of the several books, their contents, their authors, and of the times, places, and occasions on which they were written;" but it is a much more elabosate performance. Dr. Gray has diligently consulted, and brought together a great mass of information from the writings of the fathers, the antient ecclesiastical historians, and other original authorities which are not accessible to the generality of students. Bp. Mant and Dr. Doyly have liberally availed themselves of Dr. G.'s researches in their recent valuable commentary on the Holy Scriptures.

21. A General Introduction to the Study of the Hebrew Scriptures, with a critical History of the Greek and Latin Versions of the Samaritan Pentateuch, and of the Chaldee Paraphrases. By the Rev. George Hamilton, 8vo. Dublin, 1814.

The origin and antiquity of the Hebrew language and characters, vowel points, various readings, and the question relative to the integrity of the present text, together with an account of the Rabbinical notes on the Old Testament, are the topics principally discussed in this small volume ; and to these succeed a notice of the different versions and paraphrases mentioned in the title. “ Its general execution

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is highly creditable to the author's industry and judgment; and we cheerfully recommend it to that class of students for whose use it was chiefly designed." (Eclectic Review, (N. S.) vol. i. p. 503.)

22. An Introduction to the Study and Knowledge of the New Testament, by Edward Harwood, D. D. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1767, 1771.

The author designed a third volume, which was to embrace various critical questions respecting the New Testament, but died before it appeared. Though styled an Introduction, “it is evidently not so in the sense in which the above. mentioned works are introductions. It does not describe the several books of the New Testament, but contains a collection of dissertations, relative, partly, to the characters of the sacred writers, partly to the Jewish history and customs, and to such part of Heathen antiquities as have reference to the New Testament. But as these dissertations display great erudition, and contain much information illustrative of the New Testament, Dr. Harwood's Introduction is certainly to be recommended to the theological student.” (Bishop Marsh.) Another experienced divinity tutor, (the late Rev. Dr. Williams) has also justly remarked that this work . may be read with advantage, making allowance for the author's theological sentiments, (Christian Preacher, p.417.) which were Arian. We have derived some very useful illustrations from Dr. Harwood's labours in the third volume of this work.

23. Humphredi Hody de Bibliorum Textibus Originalibus, Versionibus Græcis, et Latina Vulgatâ Libri Quatuor. Oxonii, 1704. folio.

" This is the classical work on the Septuagint." (Bp. Marsh.) The first book contains Dr. Hody's dissertation, with improvements, against Aristeas's History, which he had before published in 1685 in opposition to Isaac Vossius's Disserta. tiones de Septuaginta Interpretibus, eorumque Translatione et Chronologiâ : in which the latter ascribed more authority to the Greek Version than to the Origi. nal itself. In the second book the author treats of the true authors of the Septuagint Version, - of the time when, and the reasons why it was undertaken, - and of the manner in which it was performed. The third book contains a history of the original Hebrew text, of the Septuagint, and of the Vulgate Latin Version, showing the authority of each in different ages, and that the Hebrew text has always been most esteemed and valued. In the fourth and last book he gives an account of the Greek Versions of Symmachus, Aquila, and Theodotion, and of Origen's Hexapla, and other antient editions; to which are subjoined lists of the books of the Bible at different times, which exhibit a concise but full and clear view of the canon of Scripture. The result of Dr. Hody's learned researches is similar to that above detailed in Part I. pp. 101–177. of this volume.

24. Introductio in Libros Sacros Veteris Fæderis in Compendium redacta a Johanne Jahn. Vienna, 1804, 8vo.

The author of this valuable work is of the Roman Catholic communion, and has diligently consulted the best continental writers who have treated on the study of the Bible. This introduction is divided into two parts ; in the first are discussed various questions relative to the divine authority and inspiration of the Scriptures, the principal editions and versions of them, both Jewish and Christian, the nature of various lections, &c. The second part contains a series of disquisitions on each book of the Old Testament, as well as of the apocryphal books, which, of course, are recognised as genuino. In these disquisitions, Professor Jahn notices the ar. gument, scope, author, date, &c. &c. &c. of the several books. Much important information is, in this volume, condensed into a small compass : at the end of the book there are forty pages of questions, framed upon the preceding part of the work, to exercise the memories of students. A good index, or at least a copious table of contents, however, is wanting to facilitate reference.

25. Sacred Literature; comprising a Review of the Principles of Composition laid down by the late Robert Lowth, D. D. Lord Bishop of London, in his Prælections and Isaiah, and an application of the principles so reviewed to the illustration of the New Testament; in a series of Critical Observations on the style and structure of that Sacred Volume. By the Rev. John Jebb, A. M. (now D. D. and Bishop of Limerick].' London, 1820. 8vo.

A notice of this admirable work has already been given in p. 468. of the present plume.

26. A New and Full Method of settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament. By the Rev. Jeremiah Jones. Oxford, 1798. 3 vols. 8vo.

The first edition of this elaborate work appeared in 1726, two years after the death of its learned author (a dissenting minister), who died at the early age of 31. He had previously published" A Vindication of the former part of St. Matthew's Gospel, from Mr. Whiston's charge of Dislocations ;” in which he successfully proved that our present Greek copies of that Gospel are in the same order in which they were originally written by the evangelist. • In drawing up these works he took care to consult and examine the originals, instead of satisfying himself with the quotations of other learned men. They remain as monuments of his learning, ingenuity, and indefatigable industry, and would have done credit to the assiduily and ability of a literary man of sixty. They were become very scarce, and bore a high price, when with the liberality and zeal which reflects honour on them, the conductors of the Clarendon Press republished them at Oxford. Mr. Jones, observes Dr. Maltby, has brought together, with uncommon diligence, the external evidence for the authenticity and genuineness of the canonical books; and he has, with equal ability and fairness, stated his reasons for deciding against the authority of the apocryphal.” (Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, vol. xix. p. 95.)

27. Bibliotheca Critica Sacræ, circa omnes fere Sacrorum Librorum difficultates, ex Patrum Veterum traditione et probatiorum interpretum collecta. Ab uno ordinis Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Religioso. (F. Cherubino a S. Joseph.) Lovanii, 1704. 4 vols. folio.

In this very prolix, but elaborate work, every possible question relative to Scripture criticism is discussed and illustrated, from the writings of the fathers and most eminent divines, principally of the church of Rome. The last volume contains prefaces to the different books of the Old and New Testament, exhibiting the time when they were written, their language, authors, and respective authori. ty, together with copious synopses of the contents of each book.

28. The State of the Printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament considered. By Benjamin Kennicott, M. A. Oxford, 1753—1759. 2 vols. 8vo.

These dissertations preceded Dr. Kennicott's celebrated collation of Hebrew MSS, and his edition of the Hebrew Bible, which is noticed in the former part of this volume. The first dissertation, in two parts, contains a comparison of 1 Chron. xi. with 2 Sam. v. and xxiii., and observations on seventy Hebrew MSS. with an extract of mistakes and various readings. In the second, the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch is vindicated; the printed copies of the Chaldee Paraphrase are proved to be corrupted; the sentiments of the Jews on the Hebrew text are ascertained; an account is given of all the Hebrew MSS. known to be extant; and also a particular catalogue of one hundred Hebrew MSS. preserved in the public libraries at Oxford, Cambridge, and the British Museum. Dr. Kennicott's first dissertation was translated into Latin by M. Teller, in 2 vols. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1756.

29. Benj. Kennicotti Dissertatio Generalis in Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum. Curavit P. J. Bruns. Brunsvici, 1783. 8vo.

A neat reprint of Dr. Kennicott's Dissertatio Generalis, annexed to vol ii. of his edition of the Hebrew Bible, noticed in Part I. p. 123. of this volume.

30. Ignatii Koegler Notitia S. S. Bibliorum Judæorum in Imperio Sinensi. Editio altera. Edidit C. Th. de Murr. Halæ, 1806. 8vo.

31. Apparatus Biblicus : or an Introduction to the Holy Scriptures in three books. 1. Of the original and antiquity of the Jews. 2. Of the canon, authors, original texts, versions, éditions, and interpretations of Scripture. 3. Of the false gods, &c. mentioned in the Scriptures. From the French of Père Lamy. With Engravings. London, 1728. 2 vols. 8vo. 2d edit.

32. Joannis Lanigan S. Th. D. et in Academia Ticinensi Professoris, Institutionum Biblicarum Pars prima. Pavia, (1794) 8vo.

The second part of this work has never appeared ; nor has the writer of these pages been able to obtain the sight even of a copy of the first portion. He has been informed that it was suppressed in Italy. A short Analysis of the first part is given in the Monthly Review (N. S.) vol. xxii. pp. 552—554. ; where it is said (p. 555.) that this volume contains a large portion of text matter, well arranged, and accompanied with many learned notes selected from the best critics of the present age, together with a considerable number of just remarks from the author's own pen.

33. Bibliotheca Sacra post Jacobi Le Long et C. F. Boerneri iteratas curas ordine disposita, emendata, suppleta, continuata ab Andrea Gottlieb Masch. Halæ, 1774–1797. 5 vols. 4to. frequently bound in two thick volumes,

We have been largely indebted to this publication for much information concerning the printed editions of the Old and New Testament. To this valuable work Bibliotheca Biblica Serenissimi Wuortembergensium Ducis, olim Lorkiena, published by J. G.C. Adler, at Altona, in 1787, (in five parts forming two quarto volumes) forms an indispensable supplement. It is very justly characterised by Bp. Marsh as “a catalogue of groat merit and utility," and contains notices of some versions and translators, which have escaped even the researches of Dr. Masch,

34. A History of the Principal Translations of the Bible. By John Lewis, M. A. London, 1739, 1818. 8vo.

The first edition of this valuable work, to which all succeeding writers on the English versions of the Scriptores are indebted, was prefixed to Mr. Lewis's folio edition of the venerable John Wickliffe's English version of the New Testament.

35. An Historical View of the English Biblical Translations; the expediency of revising by authority our present translation ; and the means of executing such a revision. By William Newcome, D. D. Bishop of Waterford (afterwards Archbishop of Armagh.) Dublin, 1792. 8vo.

36. Joannis Leusdenii Philologus Ebræus, continens Quæstiones Ebraicas

quæ circa Vetus Testamentum Ebræum fere moveri solent. Ultrajecti, 1656, 1672, 1695. 4to. Amstelædami, 1686. 4to.

37. Joannis Leusdenii Philologus Ebræo-Mixtus, una cum spicilegio philologico, continente decem quæstionum et positionum præcipuè philologico-Ebraicarum et Judaicarum centurias. Ultrajecti, 1663, 1682, 1699. 4to.

Besides discussing critical questions, this volume of the laborious philologer Leusden, treats very copiously on Jewish rites and antiquities.

38. Johannis Leusdenii Philologus Ebræo-Græcus generalis, continens quæstiones Ebræo-Græcas, quæ circa Novum Testamentum fere nioveri solent. Ultrajecti, 1670, 1685, 1695. 4to.

Various questions relative to the original language of the New Testament, its editions, versions, divisions, &c. are concisely illustrated in this volume. All the three preceding volumes of Leusden are valuable, and may frequently be obtained at a low price.

39. Johannis Leusdenii de Dialectis N. T., singulatim de ejus Hebraismis Libellus singularis, item editus ab Joh. Frider. Fischero.

Accessit Joh. Vorstii Commentariolus de Adagiis N. T. Hebraicis. Lipsiæ, 1792. 8vo.

This publication contains a reprint of Leusden's critical disquisitions on the Hebraisms of the New Testament. They are enriched with very numerous phi. lological observations of the learned John Frederic Fischer, who first published them in a detached form, in 8vo. in 1754.

40. Molkenbuhr (Marcellini), Problema Critieum : Sacra Serip

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