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of the Syriac Lexicon contained in the Heptaglott Lexicon of our learned coun tryman Edmund Castell.1
8. An introduction to the Syriac Language ; in which the Genius of the Language is explained by a new and simple Principle of Analysis. By the Rev. Frederick Nolan. London, 1821. 12mo.
Arabic Grammars and Lexicons. 1. Philippi Guadagnoli Breves Arabicæ Linguæ Institutiones. Romæ, 1642. 4to.
2. Thomæ Erpenii Grammatica Arabica, cum fabulis Lokmani, et excerptis anthologiæ veterum Arabiæ poetarum. Arabice et Latine interprete Alberto Schultens. Lugduni Batavorum, 1748, 1767. 4to.
The first edition of Erpenius's Arabic Grammar appeared in 1636, in 4to. Those of 1748 and 1767 are considered the best.
3. Thomæ Erpenii Rudimenta Linguæ Arabicæ. Florilegium sententiarum et Clavem dialectorum adjecit Albertus Schultens. Lugduni Batavorum, 1770. 4to. Best edition.
4. A Grammar of the Arabic Language, in which the rules are illustrated by authorities from the best writers. By John Richardson. London, 1776. 4to.
5. Grammaire Arabe, par Silvestre de Sacy. Paris, 1810. 2 vols. 8vo.
6. Institutiones Grammaticæ Arabicæ, auctore Antonio Aryda. Vindobonæ, 1813. 4to.
7. Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguæ Arabicæ : accedunt sententiæ et narrationes Arabicæ, una cum Glossario Arabico-Latino. Auctore Ern. Frid. Car. Rosenmüllero, Theol. Doct. et in Academia Lipsiensi Prof. ordinario. Lipsia, 1818. 4to.
Of the very numerous grammars of the Arabic Language which have been published, this of Professor Rosenmüller is considered the best. The author has made great use of Sacy's Grammaire Arabe ; and the Chrestomathy, or selection of passages from Arabic Writers, enhances the value of his publication.
8. Antonii Giggeii Thesaurus Linguæ Arabicæ ; seu Lexicon Arabicum Latinum. Mediolani, 1632. 4 vols. folio.
This is a very valuable work, though greatly inforior in point of correctness to the following Lexicon of Golius.
9. Jacobi Golii Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, contextum ex probatioribus orientis Lexicographis. Accedit Index Latinus copiosissimus, qui Lexici Latino-Arabici vicem explere possit. Lugduni Batavorum, 1653. folio.
“ This is an invaluable work, and the best on the subject ever published. It is in every respect well edited. The arrangement of the words, the definitions given, the paper, types, and typographical execution, — are all in the first style of accuracy and elegance.” Bibliog. Dict. vol. iv. p. 7.
10. Jacobi Scheidii Glossarium Arabico-Latinum Manuale. Lug. duni Batavorum, 1769. 4to.
11. Johannis Jahn Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, Chrestomathiæ Arabicæ accommodatum, et Chrestomathia Arabica. Vindobonæ, 1802. 2 vols. 8vo.
i Castell's Syriac Lexicon was reprinted at Gottingen in 1788, in two parts, forming one volume small 4to.
12. Dictionnaire Abrégé Francais-Arabe. Par J. F. Ruphy. Paris, 1802. 4to.
For a full account of Arabic Grammars and Lexicons, the reader is referred to Schnurrer's Bibliotheca Arabica, in which their dates, &c. are particularly specified.
Ethiopic Grammar and Lexicons. 1. Jobi Ludolphi Grammatica Linguæ Amharicæ (vel Æthiopicæ), quæ vernacula est Habessinorum. Francofurti ad Mænum, 1698, folio ; 1702, folio. Best edition.
2. Jobi Ludolphi Lexicon Amharico-Latinum. Francofurti ad Mænum, 1698. folio.
This is commonly bound up with the first edition of Ludolph's Amharic Gram
3. Jobi Ludolphi Lexicon Æthiopico-Latinum. Francofurti ad Mænum, 1698. folio.
Egyptian Grammar and Lericon. 1. Lexicon Ægyptiaco-Latinum, ex veteribus illius Linguæ monumentis summo studio collectum à Maturino Veyssiere La Croze. Edentibus Christiano Scholtz et Carolo Godofredo Woide. Oxonii e Typographia Clarendoniano, 1775. 4to.
2. Christiani Scholtz Grammatica Ægyptiaca utriusque dialecti : qnam breviavit, illustravit, edidit Carolus Godofredus Woide. Oxonii e Typographeo Clarendoniano, 1778. 4to.
These publications are not of common occurrence, and have acquired additional value since various fragments of the antient Coptic and Sahidic versions of the New Testament have been published.1 Previously to the seventeenth century, Egyptian literature was but slightly regarded in Europe, and might possibly have been still disregarded, if the celebrated oriental traveller Bartolomeo De la Valle had not brought to Rome, from Egypt, among other curiosities, soine Coptic or Egyptian manuscripts, of which he gave the perusal to Athanasius Kircher, a voluminous but very indifferent writer in regard to solidity and fidelity. Kircher, however, has the merit of being the first who published a book, relating to the Egyptian language, under the title Lingua Ægyptiaca Restituta. (Roma, 1643. 4to.) Which was, in fact, nothing but the manuscript dictionary or vocabulary of De la Valle. Theodore Petræus, who had been in Egypt in the same century, enriched Europe with several valuable manuscripts; and he well understanding the Egyptian tongue, would have proved a restorer of Egyptian literature, had he met with proper encouragement; but he could no where find it, not even in London, where he printed the first psalm as a specimen of the Egyptian language. Happily his manuscripts were sold to the Elector of Brandenburg, and placed in his library at Berlin.
Dr, Wilkins, a German, and La Croze, a Frenchman, distinguished themselves, in the beginning of this century, by their cultivation of the Egyptian tongue. The former met with encouragement and preferment in England; and printed at Oxford in 1716, the Egyptian New Testament, in the Coptic or Lower Egyptian dia. lect. He also printed the Pentateuch, at London, in 1731. But being unacquainted with the Sahidic or Upper Egyptian dialect, he mistook the Sahidic or I'hebaidic manuscripts in the Bodleian Library for faulty Coptic ones. La Croze being librarian to the king of Prussia at Berlin, and having free access to the
1 See a notice of them in p. 192. of the present volume.
Egyptian manuscripts of Potræus in that library, compiled from those and some other manuscripts, a valuable dictionary, which he finished in 1722. He was much assisted in this undertaking by Dr. Jablonsky, a learned professor at Frank. fort, who collected several materials for him in the Bodleian Library, and that of the king of France, at Paris. Dr. Jablonsky gave La Croze the first hint that, beside the Coptic dialect, there was another of Upper Egypt, which is now commonly called the Sahidic or Thebaidic dialect. He sent him likewise a transcript of a manuscript of this kind (No. 393, Huntington, in the Bodleian Library) de Mysteriis Literarum Græcarum, from which La Croze took Collectionem vocum quarundam Sahidicarum, which is annexed to his Dictionary. Jablonsky, who on his travels had copied several Egyptian manuscripts, communicated them to his brother-in-law, Mr. Scholtz, chaplain in ordinary to the king of Prussia ; who being furnished with the manuscripts at Berlin, and the Dictionary of La Croze, wrote, in 1750, an Egyptian Grammar of both dialects, in two vols. 4to. Several learned men wished that both the Dictionary and the Grammar might be published, but they could not find a printer furnished with Egyptian types, or who would hazard the undertaking ; till, at last, the university of Oxford, on a noble princi. ple of public spirit, determined to take the business in hand. When the Dictionary was printing, Dr. Woide was desired to make some additions to it; but this not being proposed to him till more than half the work was printed off, he could extend his remarks to three letters only; and to render the undertaking more useful, he added an index.
It was intended to print the Grammar of Mr. Scholtz, in two 4to vols. immediately after the Dictionary, but it being found too voluminous, Dr. Woide very properly abridged it; and the work, so far from losing by his abridgment, has gained very considerably; for Dr. W. has carefully examined, corrected, and improved the Grammar, by means of manuscripts unknown to Mr. Scholtz, of which he gives an account in the preface prefixed to the Grammar. The Sahidic part, which is now to be found in this Grammar, was entirely supplied by Dr. Woide.
Two circumstances must particularly recommend this Grammar; first, that the rules laid down are illustrated and supported by examples, quoted from the abovementioned manuscripts ; secondly, that it exhibits both dialects, to one of which we have hitherto been entire strangers. (Monthly Review (O. S.) vol. lx. p. 1. Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer, vol. ix. pp. 9–11.)
Persian Grammars and Lexicons. 1. Ludovici de Dieu Rudimenta Linguæ Persice : accedunt duo priora capita Geneseos ex Persica translatione Jacobi Tawusi. Lugduni Batavorum, 1639. 4to.
2. Angeli a S. Joseph Gazophylacium Linguæ Persarum. Amstelodami, 1684. folio.
3. A Grammar of the Persian Language. By Sir William Jones. London, 1809. 4to. seventh edition.
The first edition of this Grammar appeared in 1775, in 4to.; in that of 1809 the orthography is adapted to the mode of spelling adopted by Dr. Wilkins in his improved edition of Richardson's Persian Dictionary. Sir. W. Jones's Grammar forms the fifth volume of the octavo edition of his works.
4. Francisci de Dombay Grammatica Lingua Persicæ ; accedunt dialogi, historiæ, sententiæ, et narrationes Persicæ. Viennæ, 1804. 4to.
5. A Grammar of the Persian Language. By M. Lumsden, LL. D. London, 1811. 2 vols. small folio.
6. Francisci Wilken Institutiones ad Fundamenta Linguæ Persarum, cum Chrestomathia, et auctario ad Chrestomatbiain. Lipsiæ, 1805; 2 parts forming 1 vol. 8vo.
7. A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English; with a Disserta
tion on the Languages, Literature, and Manners of Eastern Nations. By John Richardson, Esq. F. S. A. A new edition with numerous additions and improvements, by Charles Wilkins, LL. D. F. R. S. London, 1806-1810. 2 vols. royal 4to.
The first edition of this great and claborate work appeared at Oxford and Lon. don in 1777, in one large folio volume. Dr. Wilkins has revised it throughout, corrected the orthography of every word, and enlarged it to a great extent, with very numerous additions, which his long residence in India and profound knowledge of the Persian language, peculiarly qualified him to make. As the bulk and price of this work render it accessible to comparatively few students of Persia, Mr. Hopkins compiled from it an abridgment, entitled a Vocabulary, Persiar, Arabic, and English, which was printed at London in 1810, in 8vo.
The reader, who is desirous of further information respecting elementary works, on Oriental Literature, is referred to Professor Lee's Sylloge Librorun orientalium, quibus linguarum biblicarum studiosi marimo cum fructu uti queant. (Cantabrigiæ, 1821. 8vo.) In this manual, Prof. Lee has particularly specified those treatises which are most worthy of the student's attention.
INTERPRETATION OF THE SCRIPTURES.
As the authors, who have treated on PARTICULAR branches of Sacred Criticism and interpretation are cited, and the titles of their works are specified in the course of this work, under the several heads to which they properly belong, the present notice is designedly restricted to the Principal Writers, who have treated GENERALLY on these topics.
1. AN Introduction to the reading of the New Testament, by MM. Beausobre and L'Enfant. Cambridge, 1779, 1788, 1806, 1816, 1819. 8vo.
This was originally a preface to the French version of the New Testament published by MM. Beausobre and L'Enfant at Amsterdam in 1718. It is also to be found in the third volume of the Theological Tracts collected by Bishop Watson.
2. Joannis Alberti Bengelii Apparatus Criticus ad Novum Testamentum, criseos sacræ compendium, limam, supplementum, ac fructum exhibens. Cura Philippi Davidis Burkii. Tubinge, 1763. 4to.
The first impression of this work appeared in Bengel's edition of the Greek Testament, published at Tubingen, in 1734. 4to. It was materially enlarged and corrected by Burkius. Much has been done by later critics, but the researches of Bengel are not superseded by their learned labours.
3. The Sacred Classics Defended and Illustrated, by Antony Blackwall. London, 1727, 1731. 2 vols. 8vo.
Blackwall was a strenuous advocate for the purity of the Greek style of the New Testament, which he vindicates in his first volume. The second volume, which is the most valuable, contains many excellent observations on the division of the New Testament into chapters and verses, and also on various readings. This work was translated into Latin by Christopher Woll, and published at Leipsic in 1736. 4to.
4. C. A. Bode Pseudo-Critica Millio-Bengeliana, qua allegationes
pro variis Novi Testamenti Lectionibus refutantur. Halæ, 1767. 2 vols. 8vo.
Dr. Mill in his critical edition of the Greek Testament, not being sufficiently acquainted with the Oriental Versions, had recourse to the Latin translations of them in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, for the various readings of those versions. Consequently he erred whenever these were incorrect. Similar mistakes were coinmiited by Bengel from the same cause. The design of Professor Bode is to correct the defects and mistakes of those eminent critics. Bode is considered by his countrymen as a man of most extensive learning, but totally destitute of elegance as a writer.
5. Horæ Biblicæ ; being a connected Series of Miscellaneous Notes on the original Text, early Versions, and Printed Editions of the Old and New Testament. By Charles Butler, Esq. Oxford and London, 1799. Svo.
The first edition of this judicious manual of Biblical Criticism was privately printed in 1797, for the author's friends. It has since been repeatedly printed in royal &vo. with an additional volume treating on the books accounted sacred by the Mohammedins, Hindoos, Parsees, Chinese, and Seandinavians. In 1810 M. Boulard published a French translation of this work from the edition printed at Oxtord, in 1799.
6. Dissertations, qui peuvent servir de Prolegomènes de l'Ecriture Sainte. Par Dom. Calmet. Paris, 1720.3 vols. 4to.
These dissertations were originally prefixed by Calmet to the different books of Scripture, and published in his commentary ; in this 4to. edition Calmet has collected them with considerable additions.
7. Ludovici Cappelli Critica Sacra; sive de Variis, quæ in Sacris Veteris Testamenti libris occurrunt, Lectionibus Libri sex. Parisiis, 1650. folio. Hale, 1775—1786. 3 vols. 8vo.
In this work Cappel attacked the notion, which at that time obtained generally among biblical critics, of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew text. So much were the French Protestants displeased at it, that they prevented it from being printed cither at Sedan, Geneva, or Leyden. At length Father Morinus and some other learned men in cominunion with the church of Rome, obtained permission for its publication at Paris. It is now admitted that Cappel has fully proved his point. He was however severely attacked by Arnold Boott, and especially by the younger Buxtorf, who in 1653 printed his Anti-Critica, seu Vindiciæ Veritatis Ebraicæ adversus Ludovici Capelli Criticam, quam vocat Sacram, &c. Basilox, 410.; in which Buxtorf most strenuously advocates the authority and absolute integrity of the Hebrew text. This standard work, which cost its learned author thirty-six years' labour, exhibits in six books the various readings, which result, 1. From a juxta-position of different parts of the Old Testament; 2. From a collation of the parallel passages of the Old and Now Testament; 3. From collations of the Masora, Samaritan Version, and most antient printed editions of the Hebrew Scriptures ; 4. From a collation of the Septuagint with the Hebrew text; 5. From collations of the Hebrew text with the Chaldee Paraphrase, and the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion; with the Latin Vulgate ; and with the Masoretic and Rabbinical commentators; 6. The sixth and conclud. ing book treats on the errors which are to be ascribed to transcribers, and on the readings derived from conjectural criticism. The best edition of Cappol's work is the octavo one above noticed; it contains his various defences of himself
against his bitter antagonists, and was superintended by MM. Vogel and Scharfenberg, who have inserted numerous valuable notes, in which the arguments and statements of Cappel are occasionally examined, corrected, or refuted.
8. Joh. Gottlob Carpzovii Critica Sacra Veteris Testamenti. Lipsiæ, 1738. 4to.
This elaborate work consists of three parts, treating 1. On the Divine Origin, Authenticity, Divisions, and original Language of the Old Testament, the Masora, Keri and Ketib, and the principal MSS. and Editions of the Hebrew Scriptures; -2. On the different Versions of the Old Testament, antient and modern; and 3. A Vindication of the Hebrew Scriptures against the rude Attacks of Mr.