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aging wholesale sabotage by its troops and police, to endeavor to crush the National movement for Irish independence. No effort has been made by the British Military Government in Ireland either to prevent these sackings or to punish its armed forces engaged in them.

These towns have completely or partially fallen to rifle fire, bombs, and incendiary torches. The term shot-up" used in the list indicates that in the place named British troops, without warning, fired along the streets and into residences of prominent Republicans.

1919
Sept. 9. Fermoy, Co. Cork, sacked by troops.
Nov. 6. Kinsale, Co. Cork, partially sacked by troops.
Nov. 12. Cork City, partially sacked by troops.

1920
Jan. 22. Thurles, Co. Tipperary, sacked by troops.
Feb. 7. Three houses in Dublin wrecked by troops.
Mar. 1. Thurles, Co. Tipperary, partially wrecked by troops.
Mar. 7. Several houses in Thurles, Co. Tipperary, wrecked by troops.
Mar. 12. Many houses in Cork City wrecked by police.
Mar. 22. Many shop windows in Dublin wrecked by troops.
Apr. 17. Bouladuff, Co. Tipperary, “shot-up” by police.
Apr. 26. Kilcommon, Co. Tipperary, partially wrecked by police.
Apr. 27. Many houses in Limerick City wrecked by troops.
May 1.

1. Limerick City “shot-up" by police. May 13. Houses at Thurles, Co. Tipperary, fired and bombed by police. May 15.

Houses at Bantry, Co. Cork, wrecked by police. May 18. Limerick City "shot-up" by police. May 19. Kilcommon, Co. Tipperary, “shot-up” by police. May 28. Kilmallock, Co. Limerick, sacked by police. June 5. Midleton, Co. Cork, “shot-up" by police. June 11. Limerick City “shot-up” by police. June 12. Limerick City again “shot-up" by police. June 23. Bantry, Co. Cork, partially sacked by police. June 23. Houses in Limerick City wrecked by police. June 25. Many houses at Bantry, Co. Cork, wrecked and fired by police. June 27. Fermoy, Co. Cork, sacked by troops. June 27. Lismore, Co. Waterford, sacked by troops. June 27. Many houses at Newcastle-West, Co. Limerick, wrecked and fired

by police. June 28. Limerick City partially sacked by police. June 28. Kilcommon, Co. Tipperary, “shot-up" by police. July 1. Newspaper offices at Limerick City wrecked and fired by police. July 3. Union Hall, Co. Cork, “shot-up” by police. July 5. Midleton, Co. Cork, “shot-up” by troops. July 6. Residence at Ballylanders, Co. Limerick, bombed and wrecked

by police. July 15. Tralee, Co. Kerry, partially sacked by police. July 16. Houses at Arklow, Co. Wicklow, bombed and wrecked by police. July 16. Galbally, Co. Limerick, “shot-up" by police. July 17. Cork City “shot-up” by police. July 18. Cork City “shot-up” by police. July 16. Ballagh, Co. Roscommon, partially sacked by police.

July 19. Emly, Co. Limerick, shot-up" by police. Creamery and houses

wrecked. July 20. Houses at Limerick City wrecked and burned by police. July 20. National Foresters Hall at Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford, wrecked

by police. July 21. Houses at Limerick City bombed and wrecked by police. July 22. Ballina, Co. Mayo, “shot-up” by police. July 22. Leap, Co. Cork, sacked by police. July 23. Caltra, Co. Galway, partially sacked by police. July 30. Upperchurch, Co. Tipperary, partially sacked by police. July 31. Tipperary Town partially sacked by troops. July 31. Business premises at Cork City sacked by troops. Aug. 2. Many houses at Castlerea, Co. Roscommon, partially wrecked by

police. Aug. 5. Doon, Co. Limerick, sacked by troops. Aug. 6. Rosegreen, Co. Tipperary, 'shot-up" by police. Aug. 7. Tralee, Co. Kerry, “shot-up" by police. Aug. 8. Houses at Kildorrery, Co. Cork, wrecked and looted by police. Aug. 12. Sinn Fein Hall at Enniscorthy wrecked by police. Aug. 12. Swords, Co. Dublin, “shot-up" by troops. Aug. 13. Limerick City "shot-up" by police. Aug. 14. Tralee, Co. Kerry, 'shot-up" by troops and police. Aug. 15. Limerick City partially wrecked by police. Aug. 16. Templemore, Co. Tipperary, partially sacked by police. Aug. 17. Creameries at Castleiny, Loughmore and Killea, Co. Tipperary,

destroyed by police. Aug. 19. Bantry, Co. Cork, “shot-up" by police. Aug. 21.

Oranmore, Co. Galway, sacked by police. Aug. 23. Glengariffe, Co. Cork, “shot-up" by police. Aug. 24. Several houses at Dundalk, Co. Lotuh, wrecked by troops. Aug. 25. Kill, Co. Waterford, wrecked by police. Aug. 26. Creamery at Knocklong, Co. Limerick, destroyed by police. Aug. 26. Shanagolden, Co. Limerick, partially sacked by police. Aug. 26. `Naas, Co. Kildare, "shot-up" by police. Aug. 27. Queenstown, Co. Cork, sacked by troops. Sept. 1. Ballaghadereen, Co. Mayo, sacked by police. Sept. 2. Inniscarra, Co. Cork, partially sacked by police. Sept. 10. Tullow, Co. Carlow, sacked by police. Sept. 17. Galway City “shot-up” and bombed by police. Sept. 18. Several houses wrecked and fired by police in Co. Limerick. Sept. 19. Several houses at Salthill, Co. Galway, wrecked and fired by

police. Sept. 20. Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, partially sacked by police. Sept. 20. Tuam, Co. Galway, "shot-up" by police. Sept. 20. Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, sacked by police. Sept. 21. Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, shot-up" by police. Sept. 22. Drumshambo, Co. Leitrim, partially sacked by police. Sept. 22. Houses at Tuam, Co. Galway, and Galway City wrecked by

police. Sept. 22. Ennistymon, Co. Clare, sacked by police. Sept. 22. Lahinch, Co. Clare, sacked by police.

Sept. 22. Miltown Malbay, Co. Clare, sacked by police.
Sept. 22. Houses at Galway wrecked and looted by police.
Sept. 24. Newspaper offices and houses" at Galway City bombed and

wrecked by police.
Sept. 24. Ballinamore, Co. Leitrim, “shot-up” by police.
Sept. 25. Several houses at Athlone, Co. Westmeath, wrecked.
Sept. 25. Houses wrecked at Killorglin, Co. Kerry, by police.
Sept. 27. Trim, Co. Meath, sacked by police.

[VI] (b)

A CENTURY OF COERCION The Coercion Act of 1920, which follows, marks the climax of England's coercive legislation against Irish liberties.

ENGLAND'S COERCION ACT OF 1920

A BILL ENTITLED
AN ACT TO MAKE PROVISION FOR THE RESTORATION AND MAINTENANCE

OF ORDER IN IRELAND
BE IT ENACTED by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice
and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present
Parliament assembled and by the authority of the same, as follows:

1.-(1) Where it appears to His Majesty in Council that, owing to the existence of a state of disorder in Ireland the ordinary law is inadequate for the prevention and punishment of crime or the maintenance of order, His Majesty in Council may issue regulations under the Defense of the Realm Consolidation Act, 1914, (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act) for securing the restoration and maintenance of order in Ireland, and as to the powers and duties for that purpose of the Lord Lieutenant and the Chief Secretary and of members of his Majesty's forces and other persons acting on his Majesty's behalf and in particular regulations for the special purposes hereinafter mentioned:

It is provided that all regulations so made shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament as soon as may be after they are made, and if an address is presented to His Majesty by either House within the next fourteen days during the session of Parliament, after any such regulation is laid before it, praying that the regulation may be annulled, his Majesty may annul the regulation and it shall thenceforth be void, without prejudice to the validity of anything done thereunder, or to the power of making a new regulation, and the regulations shall not be deemed to be statutory rules within the mean. ing of Section One of the Rules Publication Act, 1893.

(2). The provisions of the principal Act with respect to the trial by courtmartial or courts of summary jurisdiction and punishment of persons committing offenses against the Defense of the Realm Regulations, shall extend to the trial of persons alleged to have committed, and the punishment on conviction of persons who have committed crimes in Ireland, whether before or after the passing of this Act, including persons committed for trial or against whom indictment have been found so, however, that

(a) Any crime when so tried shall be punishable with the punishment assigned to the crime by statute or common law; (6) A court-martial when trying a person charged with a crime punishable by death shall include as a member of the court one person (who need not be an officer, or, if an officer, need not possess such qualifications as is mentioned in subsection [3] of section 48 of the Army Act) nominated by the Lord Lieutenant, being a person certified by the Lord Chancellor of Ireland or the Lord Chief Justice of England to be a person of

legal knowledge and experience; and regulations under the Principal Act may be made accordingly. (3) Regulations so made may also (a) Provide that a court of summary jurisdiction, when trying a per(e) Authorize the conveyance to and detention in any of His Majesty's prisons in any part of the United Kingdom of any persons upon whom a sentence of imprisonment has been passed in Ireland, whether before or after the passing of this Act;

son charged with a crime or with an offense against the regulations or when hearing and determining any application with respect to a recog. nizance, shall, except in the Dublin Metropolitan police district, be consti. tuted of two or more resident magistrates, and that a court of quarter sessions, when hearing and determining an appeal against a conviction of a court of summary jurisdiction for any such crime or offense, or against an order made on any such application shall be constituted of the recorder or county court judge sitting alone;

(6) Confer on a court-martial the powers and jurisdiction exercizable by justices or any other civil court for binding persons to keep the peace or be of good behavior, for estreating and enforcing recognizances, and for compelling persons to give evidence and to produce documents before the court;

(c) Confer on persons authorized to summon witnesses before a courtmartial the power of issuing warrants for compelling persons to attend as witnesses, and any warrant so issued shall have the like effect and be executed in a like manner as if issued by a justice or court of summary jur. isdiction having jurisdiction in the place in which it is executed;

(d) Authorize the imposition by courts-martial of fines in addition to or in substitution for any other punishments for offenses against the regulations as well as for crimes, and provide for the manner in which such fines are to be enforced;

(f) Provide for any of the duties of coroner and coroner's jury being performed by a court of inquiry constituted under the Army Act instead of by the coroner and jury;

(g) Provide that where the Court house or other building in which any court is usually held, has been destroyed or rendered unfit or is otherwise unavailable for the purpose, the court may be held in such other court house or building as may be directed by the Lord Lieutenant;

(h) Authorize the trial without a jury of any action, counter claim, civil bill issue, cause or matter in the High Court or a county Court in Ireland which, apart from this provision, would be triable with a jury;

(i) Provide for the retention of sums payable to any local authority from the Local Taxation (Ireland) Account, or from any Parliamentary grant, or from any fund administered by any Government department or public body where the local authority has in any respect refused or failed to perform its duties, or for the purpose of discharging amounts awarded against the local authority in respect of compensation for criminal injuries or other liabilities of the local authority and for the application of the sums so retained in or towards the purpose aforesaid.

(4) Any such regulations may apply either generally to the whole of Ireland or to any part thereof, and may be issued at any time, whether before or after the termination of the present war, and the principal Act shall continue in force so far as may be necessary for that purpose, and the regulations may contain such incidental, supplemental, and consequential provisions as may be necessary for carrying out the purposes of this Act, and shall have effect as if enacted in this Act.

(5) Section two of the Defense of the Realm (Amendment) Act, 1915, shall apply to proceedings before a court-martial in respect of a crime or an offense against the regulations, but save as aforesaid that Act shall not apply. (6) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:

The expression “crime" means any treason, treason-felony, felony, misdemeanor, or other offense punishable, whether on indictment or on summary conviction by imprisonment or by any greater punishment other than offenses against the Defense of the Realm Regulations:

The expression “person committed for trial” shall include a person who has entered into a recognizance conditioned to appear and plead to an indictment or to take his trial upon any criminal charge, or who has been

committed to prison there to await his trial for any crime. 2. This Act may be cited as the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act, 1920.

This most recent act of coercion is but an intensified form of earlier acts of suppression of public and personal liberty. A partial list follows:

[graphic]

1801 41 Geo. III.

61 Suppression of Rebellion. This was the in1801 41 Geo. III. 104 do.......

auguration of 1802–3 42 Geo. III.

116 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus* the Union. 1802–3 42 Geo. III.

117 Suppression of Rebellion. 1803–4 44 Geo. III.

8 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus 1803–4 44 Geo. III.

9 Suppression of Rebellion. 1803–4 44 Geo. III. 90 Peace Preservation Act...

To restrict the

possession of 1805 45 Geo. III.

4 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. arms. 1806–7 47 Geo. III. 8 Peace Preservation Act..

To restrict pos1807 47 Geo. III. 54 do.......

session of arms. 1810 50 Geo. III. 109 do..

do. 1812 52 Geo. III. 91 do.......

do. 1813 53 Geo. III. 78 do.......

do. 1813-14 54 Geo. III.

33 Peace Preservation Act. 1813–14 54 Geo. III..

180 To prevent unlawful combina

tions. 1813-14 54 Geo. III.

181 To prevent aggravated assaults. 1814-15/55 Geo. III.

do. 1817 57 Geo. III.

50 Peace Preservation Act.... Castlereagh leg1820 1 Geo. IV.

47 To restrict the use or posses- islation.

sion of arms, 1821 3 Geo. IV.

4

do. 1829 do...

14 do. 1823 £ Geo. IV..

58 To deal with insurrections, etc. 1824 5 Geo. IV..

105. do. 1829 11 Geo. IV.

1 To deal with dangerous assem

blies. 1830 11 Geo. IV.

44 To restrict the use of firearms. 1831 1 and 2 Wm. IV... 47 do. 1831–2 2 and 3 Wm. IV.. 70 do. 1833 3 and 4 Wm. IV.. 4 To deal with local disturbances. This was to deal 1835 5 and 6 Wm. IV. 48 Peace Preservation Act.

with the dis1836 6 and 7 Wm. IV.. 39 Arms and gunpowder restrictions. turbances aris1837–8 1 and 2 Victoria.... 71 do.

ing out of the 7 1839 2 and 3 Victoria.... 74 To deal with unlawful societies. years'tithe war. 1839 2 and 3 Victoria.... 77 To deal with aggravated assaults. 1841 4 and 5 Victoria.... 25 To prohibit importation of arms. See further ob1843 6 and 7 Vivtoria.... 23 To deal with aggravated assaults.

servations ap1847–8 11 and 12 Vivtoria 2 Prevention of crime.

pended. 1847-8 do.........

35 Suspension of Habeas Corpus

Act. 1847-8 do..

89 Unlawful combinations. 1849 12 and 13 Victoria 38 Dealing with aggravated

saults. 1850 13 and 14 Victoria 106 Crime and outrage Act. 1852 15 and 16 Victoria

66

do. 1852-3 16 and 17 Victoria 72 do. 1854 17 and 18 Victoria 92 1854–5 18 and 19 Victoria 112 do. 1856 19 and 20 Victoria 36 Peace Preservation Act. 1857–8 21 and 22 Victoria

28

do. 1860 23 and 24 Victoria 138 do. 1862 25 and 26 Victoria 24 do. 1865 28 and 29 Victoria 118 do. 1866 29 and 30 Victoria 119 Habeas Corpus Suspension. 1867 30 and 31 Victoria 1 do. 1861 do..........

25 do. 1870 33 and 34 Victoria 9 Peace Preservation Act. 1873 36 and 37 Victoria 24 do. 1875 38 and 39 Victoria

do. 1881 44 and 45 Victoria 14 Habeas Corpus Suspension. 1882 45 and 46 Victoria 25 Prevention of crime. 1883 46 and 47 Victoria 12 Peace Preservation Act. 1887 50 and 51 Victoria 20 Criminal Law and Procedure

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