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under section 212 or section 232. The term "fiscal year” means an accounting period of twelve months ending on the last day of any month other than December. The first taxable year, to be called the taxable year 1921, shall be the calendar year 1921 or any fiscal year ending during the calendar year 1921;

(2) The term “fiduciary” means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person, trust or estate;

(3) The term “withholding agent” means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 221 or section 237;

(4) The term "paid,” for the purposes of the deductions and credits under this title, means “paid or accrued" or "paid or incurred,” and the terms “paid or incurred” and “paid or accrued” shall be construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the net income is computed under section 212; and

(5) The term “personal service corporation” means a corporation whose income is to be ascribed primarily to the activities of the principal owners or stockholders who are themselves regularly engaged in the active conduct of the affairs of the corporation and in which capital (whether invested or borrowed) is not a material income-producing factor; but does not include any foreign corporation, nor any corporation 50 per centum or more of whose gross income consists either (1) of gains, profits, or income derived from trading as a principal, or (2) of gains, profits, commissions, or other income, derived from a Government contract or contracts made between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918, both dates inclusive.

DIVIDENDS

SEC. 201. (a) That the term "dividend” when used in this title (except in paragraph (10) of subdivision (a) of section 234 and paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of section 245) means any distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders or members, whether in cash or in other property, out of its earnings or profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, except a distribution made by a personal service corporation out of earnings or profits accumulated since December 31, 1917, and prior to January 1, 1922.

(b) For the purposes of this Act every distribution is made out of earnings or profits, and from the most recently accumulated earnings or profits, to the extent of such earnings or profits accumulated since February 28, 1913; but any earnings or profits accumulated or increase in value of property accrued prior to March 1, 1913, may be distributed exempt from the tax, after the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, have been distributed. If any such taxfree distribution has been made the distributee shall not be allowed as a deduction from gross income any loss sustained from the sale or other disposition of his stock or shares unless, and then only to the extent that the basis provided in section 202 exceeds the sum of (1) the amount realized from the sale or other disposition of such stock or shares, and (2) the aggregate amount of such distributions received by him thereon.

(c) Any distribution (whether in cash or other property) made by a corporation to its shareholders or members otherwise than out of (1) earnings or profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, or (2) earnings or profits accumulated or increase in value of property accrued prior to March 1, 1913, shall be applied against and reduce the basis provided in section 202 for the purpose of ascertaining the gain derived or the loss sustained from the sale or other disposition of the stock or shares by the distributee.

(d) A stock dividend shall not be subject to tax but if after the distribution of any such dividend the corporation proceeds to cancel or redeem its stock at such time and in such manner as to make the distribution and cancellation or redemption essentially equivalent to the di tribution of a taxable dividend, the amount received in redemption or cancellation of the stock shall be treated as a taxable dividend to

the extent of the earnings or profits accumulated by such corporation after February 28, 1913.

(e) For the purposes of this Act, a taxable distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders or members shall be included in the gross income of the distributees as of the date when the cash or other property is unqualifiedly made subject to their demands.

(f) Any distribution made during the first sixty days of any taxable year shall be deemed to have been made from earnings or profits accumulated during preceding taxable years; but any distribution made during the remainder of the taxable year shall be deemed to have been made from earnings or profits accumulated between the close of the preceding taxable year and the date of distribution, to the extent of such earnings or profits, and if the books of the corporation do not show the amount of such earnings or profits, the earnings or profits for the accounting period within which the distribution was made shall be deemed to have been accumulated ratably during such period. This subdivision shall not be in effect after December 31, 1921.

BASIS FOR DETERMINING GAIN OR LOSS SEC. 202. (a) That the basis for ascertaining the gain derived or loss sustained from a sale or other disposition of property, real, personal, or mixed, acquired after February 28, 1913, shall be the cost of such property; except that

(1) In the case of such property, which should be included in the inventory, the basis shall be the last inventory value thereof;

(2) In the case of such property, acquired by gift after December 31, 1920, the basis shall be the same as that which it would have in the hands of the donor or the last preceding owner by whom it was not acquired by gift. If the facts necessary to determine such basis are unknown to the donee, the Commissioner shall, if possible, obtain such facts from such donor or last preceding owner, or any other person cognizant thereof. If the Commissioner finds it impossible to obtain such facts, the basis shall be the value of such property as found by the Commissioner as of the date or approximate date at which, according to the best information the Commissioner is able to obtain, such property was acquired by such donor or last preceding owner. In the case of such property acquired by gift on or before December 31, 1920, the basis for ascertaining gain or loss from a sale or other disposition thereof shall be the fair market price or value of such property at the time of such acquisition;

(3) In the case of such property, acquired by bequest, devise, or inheritance, the basis shall be the fair market price or value of such property at the time of such acquisition. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply to the acquisition of such property interests as are specified in subdivision (c) or (e) of section 402.

(b) The basis for ascertaining the gain derived or loss sustained from the sale or other disposition of property, real, personal, or mixed, acquired before March 1, 1913, shall be the same as that provided by subdivision (a); but

(1) If its fair market price or value as of March 1, 1913, is in excess of such basis, the gain to be included in the gross income shall be the excess of the amount realized therefor over such fair market price or value;

(2) If its fair market price or value as of March 1, 1913, is lower than such basis, the deductible loss is the excess of the fair market price or value as of March 1, 1913, over the amount realized therefor; and

(3) If the amount realized therefor is more than such basis but not more than its fair market price or value as of March 1, 1913, or less than such basis but not less than such fair market price or value, no gain shall be included in and no loss deducted from the gross income.

(c) For the purposes of this title, on an exchange of property, real, personal or mixed, for any other such property, no gain or loss shall be recognized unless the property received in exchange has a readily realizable market value; but even if the property received in exchange has a readily realizable market value, no gain or loss shall be recognized

(1) When any such property held for investment, or for productive use in trade or business (not including stock-in-trade or other property held primarily for sale), is exchanged for property of a like kind or use;

(2) When in the reorganization of one or more corporations a person receives in place of any stock or securities owned by him, stock or securities in a corporation à party to or resulting from such reorganization. The word “reorganization,” as used in this paragraph, includes a merger or consolidation (including the acquisition by one corporation of at least a majority of the voting stock and at least a majority of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of another corporation, or of substantially all the properties of another corporation), recapitalization, or mere change in identity, form, or place of organization of a corporation, (however effected); or

(3) When (A) a person transfers any property, real, personal or mixed, to a corporation, and immediately after the transfer is in control of such corporation, or (B) two or more persons transfer any such property to a corporation, and immediately after the transfer are in control of such corporation, and the amounts of stock, securities, or both, received by such persons are in substantially the same proportion as their interests in the property before such transfer. For the purposes of this paragraph, a person is, or two or more persons are, “in control” of a corporation when owning at least 80 per centum of the voting stock and at least 80 per centum of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation.

(d) (i) Where property is exchanged for other property and no gain or loss is recognized under the provisions of subdivision (c), the property received shall, for the purposes of this section, be treated as taking the place of the property exchanged therefor, except as provided in subdivision (e);

(2) Where property is compulsorily or involuntarily converted into cash or its equivalent in the manner described in paragraph (12) of subdivision (a) of section 214 and paragraph (14) of subdivision (a) of section 234, and the taxpayer proceeds in good faith to expend or set aside the proceeds of such conversion in the form and in the manner therein provided, the property acquired shall

, for the purpose of this section, be treated as taking the place of a like proportion of the property converted.

(3) Where no deduction is allowed for a loss or a part thereof under the provisions of paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of section 214 and paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of section 234, that part of the property acquired with relation to which such loss is disallowed shall for the purposes of this section be treated as taking the place of the property sold or disposed of.

(e) Where property is exchanged for other property which has no readily realizable market value, together with money or other property which has a readily realizable market value, then the money or the fair market value of the property having such readily realizable market value received in exchange shall be applied against and reduce the basis, provided in this section, of the property exchanged, and if in excess of such basis, shall be taxable to the extent of the excess; but when property is exchanged for property specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subdivision (c) as received in exchange, together with money or other property of a readily realizable market value other than that specified in such paragraphs, the money or the fair market value of such other property received in exchange shall be applied against and reduce the basis, provided in this section, of the property exchanged, and if in excess of such basis, shall be taxable to the extent of the excess.

(f) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent (in the case of property sold under contract providing for payment in installments) the taxation of that portion of any installment payment representing gain or profit in the year in which such payment is received.

INVENTORIES

SEC. 203. That whenever in the opinion of the Commissioner the use of inventories is necessary in order clearly to determine the income of any taxpayer, inventories shall be taken by such taxpayer upon such basis as the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary, may prescribe as conforming as nearly as may be to the best accounting practice in the trade or business and as most clearly reflecting the income.

NET LOSSES

SEC. 204. (a) That as used in this section the term “net loss” means only net losses resulting from the operation of any trade or business regularly carried on by the taxpayer (including losses sustained from the sale or other disposition of real estate, machinery, and other capital assets, used in the conduct of such trade or business); and when so resulting means the excess of the deductions allowed by section 214 or 234, as the case may be, over the sum of the following: (1) the gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, (2) the amount by which the interest received free from taxation under this title exceeds so much of the interest paid or accrued within the taxable year on indebtedness as is not permitted to be deducted by paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of section 214 or by paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of section 234, (3) the amount by which the deductible losses not sustained in such trade or business exceed the taxable gains or profits not derived from such trade or business, (4) amounts received as dividends and allowed as a deduction under paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of section 234, and (5) so much of the depletion deduction allowed with respect to any mine, oil or gas well as is based upon discovery value in lieu of cost.

(b) If for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1920, it appears upon the production of evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner that any taxpayer has sustained a net loss, the amount thereof shall be deducted from the net income of the taxpayer for the succeeding taxable year; and if such net loss is in excess of the net income for such succeeding taxable year, the amount of such excess shall be allowed as a deduction in computing the net income for the next succeeding taxable year; the deduction in all cases to be made under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary.

(c) The benefit of this section shall be allowed to the members of a partnership and the beneficiaries of an estate or trust, and to insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by section 243 or 246, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary.

(d). If it appears, upon the production of evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner, that a taxpayer having a fiscal year beginning in 1920 and ending in 1921 has sustained a net loss during such fiscal year, such taxpayer shall be entitled to the benefits of this section in respect to the same proportion of such net loss which the portion of such fiscal year falling within the calendar year 1921 is of the entire

fiscal year.

FISCAL YEARS 1920–1921 AND 1921-1922 SEC. 205. (a) That if a taxpayer makes return for a fiscal year beginning in 1920 and ending in 1921, his tax under this title for the taxable year 1921 shall be the sum of: (1) the same proportion of a tax for the entire period computed under Title II of the Revenue Act of 1918 at the rates for the calendar year 1920 which the portion of such period falling within the calendar year 1920 is of the entire period, and (2) the same proportion of a tax for the entire period computed under this title at the rates for the calendar year 1921, which the portion of such period falling within the calendar year 1921 is of the entire period.

Any amount paid before or after the passage of this Act on account of the tax imposed for such fiscal year by Title II of the Revenue Act of 1918 shall be credited toward the payment of the tax imposed for such fiscal year by this Act, and if the amount so paid exceeds the amount of such tax imposed by this Act, the excess shall be credited or refunded in accordance with the provisions of section 252.

(b) If a taxpayer makes return for a fiscal year beginning in 1921 and ending in 1922, his tax under this title for the taxable year 1922 shall be the sum of: (1) the same proportion of a tax for the entire period computed under this title (as in force on December 31, 1921) at the rates for the calendar year 1921 which the portion of such period falling within the calendar year 1921 is of the entire period, and (2) the same proportion of a tax for the entire period computed under this title (as in force on January 1, 1922) at the rates for the calendar year 1922 which the portion of such period falling within the calendar year 1922 is of the entire period: Provided, That in the case of a personal service corporation the amount to be paid shall be only that specified in clause (2).

(c) If a fiscal year of a partnership begins in 1920 and ends in 1921, or begins in 1921 and ends in 1922, then (1) the rates for the calendar year during which such fiscal year begins shall apply to an amount of each partner's share of such partnership net income (determined under the law applicable to such year) equal to the proportion which the part of such fiscal year falling within such calendar year bears to the full fiscal year, and (2) the rates for the calendar year during which such fiscal year ends shall apply to an amount of each partner's share of such partnership net income (determined under the law applicable to such calendar year) equal to the proportion which the part of such fiscal year falling within such calendar year bears to the full fiscal year.

CAPITAL GAIN

SEC. 206. (a) That for the purpose of this title:

(1) The term “capital gain” means taxable gain from the sale or exchange of capital assets consummated after December 31, 1921;

(2) The term “capital loss” means deductible loss resulting from the sale or exchange of capital assets consummated after December 31, 1921;

(3) The term "capital deductions” means such deductions as are allowed under this title for the purpose of computing net income and are properly allocable to or chargeable against items of capital gain as defined in this section;

(4) The term “capital net gain” means the excess of the total amount of capital gain over the sum of the capital deductions and capital losses;

(5) The term “ordinary net income” means the net income, computed in accordance with the provisions of this title, after excluding all items of capital gain, capital loss, and capital deductions; and

(6) The term “capital assets" as used in this section means property acquired and held by the taxpayer for profit or investment for more than two years (whether or not connected with his trade or business), but does not include property held for the personal use or consumption of the taxpayer or his family, or stock in trade of the taxpayer or other property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year.

(b) In the case of any taxpayer (other than a corporation) who for any taxable year derives a capital net gain, there shall (at the election of the taxpayer) be levied, collected and paid, in lieu of the taxes imposed by sections 210 and 211 of this title, a tax determined as follows:

A partial tax shall first be computed upon the basis of the ordinary net income at the rates and in the manner provided in sections 210 and 211, and the total tax shall be this amount plus 127 per centum of the capital net gain; but if the taxpayer elects to be taxed under this section the total tax shall in no such case be less than 127 per centum of the total net income. The total tax thus determined shall be computed, collected and paid in the same manner, at the same time and subject to the same provisions of law, including penalties, as other taxes under this title.

(c) In the case of a partnership or of an estate or trust, the proper part of each share of the net income which consists, respectively, of ordinary net income and

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