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Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens--Con. An example showing how managerial training content differs from


Standard practice

2. Provide feed

ing facilities.

3 to 5 square feet litter or

scratching space per hen. Mash hopper on 18-inch stand. At least 5 linear feet hopper

space per 100 hens. Hopper of 3 to 5 bushels capac

ity, not clogging or wasting. (Use smaller capacity if there

is trouble from caking.) Hoppers for grit and for oyster



3. Provide water- Water container 18-inch

Related information

Kinds of litter available.
Kind and condition of floor

of house.
Effect of damp climate on

caking and clogging of
mash and on limitation
of size and type of hop-

ing facili- stand, protected from dirt and

freezing, and holding day's

Climate with respect to

likelihood of freezing.

Total amounts of different

types of feed consumed normally by hens of breed used.

4. Make feeding | Leave mash hopper open all day.
schedule. Feed about one-third to one-half

as much grain in morning as
at night, approximately 4 to
11 pounds, respectively, per
100 Leghorns and about one-

third more for heavy breeds.
Vary amount of grain in morn-

ing, so as to maintain balance
as determined; also feed so
that hens are active during
day and have full crops at

Feed green stuff at noon as much

as will not unduly loosen

Give free access to oyster shell

and grit.

operative training content as compared with the preceding example. Analysis of managerial training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens



Kind of information needed to apply factors

1. What ration

ents) to feed.

Cost of total Rations commonly fed by successful nutrient.

Cost of protein. Meaning of protein, carbohydrate, fat,
Cost of animal mineral, vitamine, from experimental

Palatability. Nutritive requirements of an egg-laying
Wholesomeness. ration, from experimental data.
Bulkiness. Composition, physical characteristics, and
Adaptability. effects of available feeds from observa-

tion, analyses, and experimental data. Cost of feeds available for purchase, from

survey of locally grown supply and

supply shipped in. Comparison of cost of commercial mixtures

and feeds purchased separately. Value of feeds available on farm, from

market price less cost of transportation. Relation of variety in a ration to its

adaptability and the avoidence of

radical changes. Possibility of securing a continuous supply

respective ingredients. Possibility and effects of substitution of

Characteristics and requirements of hens

to be fed.
Climatic conditions encountered.


2. What storage Costs.

facilities to Prevention provide.

Ways in which waste occurs as by spilling,

moisture causing decay and molding, rats and mice, temperature changes Analysis of managerial training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens

waste. Labor.

causing freezing or decay. Susceptibility of various ingredients to

spoil. Means of preventing waste. Estimate on storage costs such as first

cost of facilities, rental value, interest on value of feed in storage, price fluc

tuation. Location of storage facilities which will

save labor.

3. What feeding Cost.

facilities to Prevention of

Accessibility (to

Exercise (for

hens.) Sanitation.

Feeding devices commonly used by suc

cessful poultrymen. Ways in which waste occurs in connection

with feeding as by loss or contamination

of feed in litter, by rats and mice. Records showing comparative amount of

labor required by schedules in common

use locally. Readiness with which hens can get at feed

in different types of hoppers. Suitability of hopper as to keeping feed

clean and wholesome. Suitability of various types of litter as to

providing exercise, lasting quality, and absorptive quality.


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An example of analysis of standard practice stated in specific terms Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of filing and setting a crosscut

and suitable for placing in the hands of pupils as a work sheet.

Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of filing and setting a crosscut



Standard practice

Related information

1. Jointing -- Place saw in clamp with point toward Recognition of clamp,

operator's left as he faces clamp. (For jointer, point, heel,
right-handed persons.) Place jointer teeth, breast of saw
on saw at heel and move toward point. and jointed teeth.
Repeat until points of teeth all are
touched and lie in the line of the curve
of the breast of the saw.

2. Shaping This operation should be omitted if only Recognition of set, teeth. a very light jointing has been done and three-cornered

if the teeth have not been battered or taper file of proper
the original angles changed. But if, as size; angles on saw
a result of jointing, some of the teeth teeth.
have conspicuous, flat tops, the teeth
should be shaped to the extent of estab-
lishing correct angles, removing flat
tops and making equal spaces from

tip to tip.
Place saw in clamp with point toward the

right (for right-handed persons) and
teeth projecting only slightly above

Use round handled, regular three-cornered

taper file of a size to fit the saw teeth.
Place the file at an angle of 60° to the
side of the saw and just in front of the
first tooth from the heel on the oppo-
site side. For ordinary work the angle
of the front of the tooth should be 12°
from the vertical. If the tooth does
not already have this angle, the file



Standard practice

Related information

2. Shaping


should be held in that position so
that the angle can be established.
With the file in the proper position,
swing the right hand up and clasp the
handle of the file firmly in a natu-
ral position without strain so that
the hand and arm operating on the
shoulder joint as a pivot tends to
maintain the file at the original angles

in which it was at the start.
With the file in this position, give two or

three vigorous strokes between each
successive pair of teeth, the file in each
case being between the front part of a
tooth on the opposite side and the back
part of a tooth on the operator's side.
When the point of the saw is reached,

retain the position of the file in the
hand, but change the position of the
operator's body so that the 60° angle
with the side will be measured from the
point rather than from the heel. Then,
proceed with the same number of
strokes between each pair of teeth with
the file running in front of successive
teeth on the operator's side until the
heel is reached. If flat faces still re-
main on some of the teeth, repeat the
entire procedure with a varying num-
ber of strokes on the front and back of
each tooth until all of the respective

angles and spaces are equal.
Care should be taken not to bring the

teeth to an actual point in this opera-
tion, but merely to remove the flat

3. Setting--- Adjust saw set to size of teeth or number Recognition of saw

of points per inch. Place saw with set and parts for most of it projecting out of the clamp, adjusting it; saw or hold it between operator's knees kerf of proper size; while seated. Set the point of every

and too wide a saw
other tooth so that it bends to the left kerf.
while looking along the line of the
teeth. Reverse the position of the saw
and set every other tooth on the oppo-

site side in a similar way.
Set teeth less than half the length of a

tooth to avoid breaking. The amount
of set depends upon the kind and con-
dition of lumber to be cut. The set will
have to be wider for soft and green or wet
lumber than for hard and dry lumber.
Too wide a set results in removal of too
much wood in the saw kerf, waste of
energy in sawing, and a rough cut.
The saw kerf should be as narrow as
possible without pinching.

Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of filing and setting a crosscut



Standard practice

Related information

4. Sharpen- Place saw in clamp, as in operation No. 2. Recognition of look ing teeth. Proceed, using light strokes from heel and feel of a sharp

to point, as in operation No. 2, until point.
the teeth on one side of the saw have
been brought to a sharp point, which
may be ascertained by feeling and
observing. When sharp, the point
will dig when the finger is moved
lightly across it and the shiny tip will
Now, reverse the saw in the clamp and

proceed to file the teeth on the side
which is now away from the operator,
maintaining the same angles, but with
the file of necessity held in a different
position in the hand.
This filing of the opposite side of a saw

with the saw reversed or pointed to the
left is the most difficult thing for an
amateur to learn, because the arm
thrusts and positions are different. All
of the strokes should be lightly and
carefully made. This is the reason
why as much as possible of the filing
should be done under operation No. 2,
where the work can all be done from
one side of the saw and without chang-
ing the relative position of the file with
respect to the line of sight. The saw
is reversed in this operation in order to
draw the wire edge out equally on the
teeth on both sides.

5. Side dress- Lay the saw flat on a board or bench and Recognition of wire ing. pass a fine whetstone over the teeth on edge and

proper each side of the saw lightly and with a set. circular motion. Turn the saw over and treat the teeth similarly and equally on the opposite side. If the saw has too much set, this can be reduced by additional side dressing; but the primary purpose is to remove the rough wire edges which have resulted from filing.

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