« PreviousContinue »
A teacher should have some kind of a plan for every unit of instruction. The teaching plan should be made out on the basis of a complete farm job unit regardless of whether or not the instruction may require one class period or a series of them.
The teaching plan should include a definite statement as to the farm job to be taught and the farm enterprise in which it occurs. The teaching objective should be selected far enough in advance to insure that proper teaching materials and facilities are available. It is extremely important also that the teacher should take time to formulate definitely the ideas in the teaching base upon which he intends to build the new teaching content in the lesson under consideration. The plan should be based on an analysis of teaching content. One of the chief purposes for which a lesson plan is made is to indicate the methods to be used in preparation, presentation, supervision of practice, and testing, together with a tentative time allotment for the whole lesson and for the respective phases of the instruction.
In the beginning, at least, the plans should be worked out in careful detail until the teacher forms the habit of running over in his mind each of the important features of the plan. Later the plans can be reduced much more to outline form and an experienced teacher may need merely some specific notes on important phases of the work. It is particularly important, however, that the ideas to be developed as a teaching base should be carefully considered and definitely stated beforehand. This is the first step in the adaptation of the teaching content to the needs of the particular individual or group of individuals to be taught. In the preparation, the teacher tries to sell his teaching objective to the class. The degree to which he is successful in doing this will largely determine the success of his teaching provided, of course, he is reasonably well prepared to carry out the teaching
Following is an example of a detailed lesson plan for a comparatively simple unit of operative training. This particular job might be done in connection with any farm enterprise where carpentry work was required or might be regarded as a job pertaining to the work of the farm as a whole.
A detailed lesson plan for an inexperienced teacher.
Job: Filing and setting a cross-cut hand saw.
Objective: Operative ability.
The teaching base-
a. Have pupils seen a saw which cuts slowly?
a rough cut?
c. Do some saws bind and pinch and run hard? 2. The idea of a saw in good condition.
a. Have pupils seen a saw which cuts fast?
c. Have pupils seen a saw which runs easily?
Methods-Demonstration by the teacher.
1. How to joint.
5. How to side dress. Each demonstration is to be preceded by a brief statement of the name and purpose of the operation, but each operation is to be carried through at normal working speed without interruption. Likewise, the name and purpose of each term, tool, or part is to be described. When an operation is finished the pupils are to closely examine the condition of the saw as indicated by the teacher. After each operation has been completed, respectively, the pupils are to be referred to the analysis of training content. Supervision of practice:
Methods.—Each pupil is to perform all of the operations on
a saw after observing the respective demonstrations and consulting the analysis of content, the teacher noting where his presentation has been ineffective and repeating all or parts of it where necessary and also calling the pupil's
attention to the analysis as a work sheet. Testing:
Methods.--Each pupil is to file and set another saw unaided.
Time allotment: Total time, four double periods
First day.—Developing ideas in preparation, demonstration,
and practice of jointing. Second day.-Demonstration and practice of shaping teeth
and setting. Third day.-Demonstration and practice of sharpening and
Fourth day.—Testing of filing and setting another saw. A skeleton lesson plan for an experienced teacher.
Job: Filing and setting a cross-cut handsaw,
Objective: Operative ability.
1. The idea of a saw in bad condition.
3. How to put a saw in good working condition.
5. Side dressing. Supervision of practice:
Methods.—Use analysis as work sheet. Testing:
Methods---Have pupils fit another saw. Time allotment:
About four double periods.
An analysis of any sort is merely a classified inventory of parts or elements of something. An inventory on merchandise might be taken in terms of the contents of different rooms in a warehouse or goods on certain floor sections or shelves. The goods themselves might be listed in general terms, such as boxes of groceries, bales of dry goods, or cases of hardware. Again, the contents of each box, case, or bale could be further analyzed and inventoried in convenient classifications. The analysis could be carried further in terms of the mechanical parts of one of the machines or in terms of the component threads in a fabric. A mechanical or chemical analysis might even be resorted to in order to determine the nature of the compound in one of the cans.
In vocational education analysis is a device to help in discovering and recording functioning content. Learning is a product of experience. Experience consists in mental and physical reactions. Experience is often incidental and fragmentary, but for best results in teaching it should be organized into reasonably complete and coherent units. In any case, vocational experience is likely to be complex. Therefore in teaching it is necessary to distinguish the essential from the incidental elements.
It is usually difficult for a person proficient in a certain thing to readily identify the significant elements in the things which he does. Hence, from the standpoint of the most effective teaching, it is essential, first, that the teacher can do the things which he is attempting to teach others to do; second, that he has a complete analysis of the training content; and, third, that he can visualize such content in terms of doing the job.
One of the difficulties in the analysis of training content in farming occupations is that occupational standards are not so well established in agriculture as they are in most occupations in the industrial field. One reason for this is that agricultural occupations are conducted under such widely varying conditions; also there is a tendency to speak of things agricultural in generic terms. However, basic training of any sort must be specific even though it may also have transfer value or general utility value as well. It is therefore not a question of whether or not we can use analysis in vocational education in agriculture, but rather one of adopting the kinds of analysis which will fit the situations encountered.
The division of labor in farming occupations has not been carried so far as it has in most other industrial occupations. We have seen, however, that there are two very important functions which most farmers perform in varying degrees and combinations, namely, operation and management. Even though one individual performs both of these functions, he usually centers his attention on one of them at a time. Indeed, if this were not the case no great proficiency could be attained. Thus management has to do with making the plans before the work is started, whereas operation has to do with putting the plans into effect. When a man is on an operative job, he should not have to stop to plan; on the other hand, the essence of good management lies in preparedness, forecasting, and planning ahead of time so that when the actual work is done there may be no avoidable delays or mistakes in procedure. This does not imply that a farmer must become a mere nonthinking machine when he does operative jobs, but merely emphasizes the fact that the thinking which he does for an operative job is a different kind of thinking from that which he does for a management job, because in each case the thinking is governed by a different objective.
An analysis may be set up in general terms which merely give an outline or broad classification of parts or elements, or it may include part of or all of the details. In making and using an analysis these facts should be kept in mind so that the kind of analysis most suited to the particular needs can be chosen. The analysis form is purely an arbitrary thing which one adopts for convenience.
Probably the best procedure in connection with agricultural education is, first, to analyze each enterprise to be taught into its operative jobs. Then check such of these job units as are desired to be taught also from the managerial standpoint. Then analyze the enterprise into such other distinctly managerial jobs as may be found, proceeding likewise with farm jobs which are not identified with any one enterprise.
From the foregoing it is apparent that the term “job analysis” in this connection applies strictly to the analysis of the work units of an agricultural enterprise or of the work of a farm outside of particular enterprises. This kind of an analysis forms the basis for courses of study.
In order to secure and to visualize training content we must make analyses of such content for each job. It is this material which forms the basis for teaching units and lesson plans. The forms used for operative training content and managerial training content, respectively, together with the significance of the component elements of such training have already been discussed in this bulletin. Following are some additional examples:
An example of analysis of standard practice stated in relative terms.
Analysis of operative training content of the farm job of feeding laying hens
1. Select feeds At least 2 grains.
Feeds commonly used for ration. At least 5 or more mash ingredi- locally.
ents, including 1 with animal Feeds available at farm, protein.
dealers, etc. Not more than 5 per cent fiber Recognition of feeds of in whole ration.
good quality. Not more than 40 per cent high | Understanding of terms
fiber grains, as oats, in mix- and feed analyses so ture.
that computations can Total digestible nutrients, 70 to be made readily. 75 per cent.
Costs of home-grown and Digestible protein, 12 to 15 per of purchased feeds. cent.
Proportion of mash to Animal protein one-third of total grain needed to provide protein.
nutritive balance. Access to green food, grit, oyster Scientific explanations as shell, and water.
to the physiology of the Economical.
hen in relation to feeding.