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With the above considerations in view some of the more important reasons for doing the job were developed in the preparation.

In the presentation of the training content of a managerial job it is usually desirable to develop the analysis of content with the class, or in other words to have them supply from their own experience and thinking as much of it as possible. In teaching a lesson of Type IV we encounter a situation similar to that of a Type III lesson in that the procedure in thinking is the essential part of the lesson from the teacher's standpoint, although the job should also have vocational significance in itself to the pupil. In a managerial job, however, the thinking procedure is different from that encountered in an operative job.

In an operative job conclusions are reached but by a method of discovery and practical testing rather than by a process of reasoning, forecasting, and counting the cost. In operative procedure reliance is placed more on the law of chances or on the fact that what has been tried and has succeeded in the majority of cases is likely to succeed again. The question of whether or not it will pay is not reasoned out but is accepted as a matter of fact on the basis of previous sųccessful experience. In managerial work, past experience is considered in arriving at conclusions but chiefly as a suggestion of possible ways and means. The objective is not merely success of some sort in the undertaking but the largest possible return and the minimum of cost. The decisions are made only after a careful evaluation of all of the factors.

The efficient manager must know the factors which are most significant and essential in their bearing on the decision to be made. In order to apply the factors intelligently the manager must be in possession of specific and matter-of-fact data, or must know how to get them. The facts included in the training content should be the same kind of facts which a farmer would have to use in his actual planning, and in all cases should consist largely of specific information on conditions, data of observation, and experience, and an extensive knowledge of ways and means, The question may be raised as to whether or not a person can be trained in managerial ability. Of course any kind of training is conditioned upon the possession of certain inherent capacity and aptitude on the part of the learner, but the amount of doing ability in any line which a person may possess depends not only on his inherent capacity but also


the training which he receives.

A manager will fail if he does not know how to think in terms of a given situation or if he does not have the needed facts, or if he does not know how and where to get them. It is impossible to anticipate all possible situations which might occur and to give specific training in each, but it will be found that practically the same thinking

procedure and the same kinds of facts may be used in a number of similar situations.' Specific training in any one of these situations will serve as a type study applicable to any of the other situations in the group. Doubtless also, a person long accustomed to manage develops many mental short cuts, intuitions, and "standard practices” in thinking which correspond to skill in operative performance. But the learner can not take these short cuts in constructive thinking. He must be taught its procedure in all its elements.

In the lesson under consideration more facts were desired than were available. However, enough were secured to warrant a conclusion, under the conditions of a piece of class work. It is important to note, however, that the same procedure would have been followed if additional or different facts had been secured. This makes such a lesson particularly valuable because it will apply in other similar situations.

Since the presentation was a cooperative activity of teacher and pupils, the practice may be considered in this case to have consisted in the individual summary of conclusions reached in terms of the facts at hand. Another way which could have been used would have been for the class to have made the decisions in the case of another farmer who wanted to get seed corn to suit his conditions. Following is an illustration of an individual summary as made by a student as a result of the lesson described:

I would recommend that Mr. S-grow Boone County White because it is well adapted to this section. On the average it is the highest yielding corn for good ground in this locality. The cost of seed is no greater than for other varieties.

Also their seed is grown in the State and is likely to yield better than seed grown in other sections of the country. I would recommend uncertified seed at $4.50 per bushel since it is 30 cents cheaper than the certified seed per bushel and it is equally as good in germination and probably in purity. This would meet his needs as he does not plan to grow certified seed for sale. He should buy his seed right away because the prices are going up and if he waits until near planting time he may not be able to get the kind he wants. He should buy about a bushel and a peck, or 40 quarts, because it is best to allow for about 10 per cent not germinating.

The testing was to be accomplished by having those for whom it is practicable make their plans to buy suitable seed for their projects or for use on the home farms.






Vocational education in a farming occupation consists in instruction and training in the activities of the occupation and in the application of the ideals which should govern these activities. A competent farmer is one who can carry on the enterprises in the occupation in which he is engaged on a profitable basis.

A farm job is a complete unit from the standpoint either of an occupation or of a teaching situation, since it is something which can be started and finished with relative independence of other activities. It is a unit whose character, dimensions, and requirements are real, concrete, and specific rather than artificial, general, or arbitrarily selected. It is a unit which demands a teaching layout in terms of actual situations rather than in terms of logical aggregations of information. It demands that the old adage “Knowledge is power” shall be interpreted to mean knowledge so associated with things and situations that it constitutes power or ability to act and to produce effect.

The specific nature of farm jobs may be indicated from the following examples:

Farm jobs in the enterprise of producing market milk 1 1. Determining the extent of the 12. Feeding and watering dry cows in enterprise.

winter. 2. Choosing a breed.

13. Feeding and watering heifers in 3. Selecting the cows.

winter. 4. Selecting the bull.

14. Feeding and watering cows on test 5. Selecting the calves.

in winter. 6. Planning a dairy stable.

15. Feeding and watering veal calves 7. Rearranging a dairy stable.

in winter. 8. Equipping a dairy stable.

16. Pasturing milking cows. 9. Feeding and watering milking 17. Pasturing the bull. cows in winter.

18. Pasturing dry cows and heifers. 10. Feeding and watering calves in 19. Pasturing the calves. winter.

20. Soiling for milking cows. 11. Feeding and watering the bull in 21. Soiling for the bull. winter.

22. Cleaning the stables. "The analysis of this enterprise into the jobs was made by a committee of New York State teachers.

23. Ventilating the stables.

43. Managing sucking cows. 24. Disinfecting the stables.

44. Dehorning the calves. 25. Whitewashing the stables.

45. Dehorning cows. 26. Providing and managing a dairy | 46. Exercising cows. barnyard.

47. Exercising the bull. 27. Controlling flies.

48. Ringing the bull. 28. Cleaning the stock.

49. Training the calf to lead. 29. Eradicating lice.

50. Leading the bull. 30. Milking by hand.

51. Improving the dairy herd. 31. Milking with a milking machine. 52. Keeping records and accounts. 32. Cooling the milk.

53. Exhibiting stock. 33. Storing the milk.

54. Registering purebred stock. 34. Cleaning milking equipment. 55. Marketing surplus stock. 35. Finding a market.

56. Marketing calves. 36. Shipping the milk.

57. Caring for the feet of stock. 37. Testing the milk.

58. Getting rid of tuberculosis. 38. Serving the cows.

59. Preventing contagious abortion. 39. Caring for the cow at the time of 60. Controlling fouls. parturition.

61. Removing an apple or a potato 40. Drying up the cows.

from the throat of a dairy animal. 41. Managing kicking cows.

62. Determining when to call a vet42. Treating injured, sore, or blem- erinary surgeon.

ished teats.

In making an analysis of this sort it should be noted that no attempt has been made to designate the teaching objective for each job. Some of the jobs, such as cleaning milk equipment, are obviously operative units for which definite standard practice can be learned. Jobs like cooling the milk might be taught with either an operative training objective or a managerial training objective. A job like selecting the cows would usually involve both operative and managerial ability and in teaching it would be handled as two separate units; one, a managerial unit, involving the making of decisions and the application of management factors; the other, an operative unit involving practice in the manipulative activities required in judging and in the making of sensory judgments as to quality of the animal selected.

For the sake of completeness, all of the jobs in each of the enterprises occurring in a course of study should be considered, but not all of them may need to be taught. A job analysis in this connection may be used as a check list. On the operative side a farm boy's experience is usually extensive. He can do many of the operative jobs with a fair degree of proficiency, especially where purely mechanical abilities are involved. Many of his experiences, however, have not been particularly significant to him for the reason that they have not been organized. In many cases also he will need additional practice in making sensory judgments as to quality of stock, produce, or materials with which he must work.

In management jobs, particularly in the major enterprises, most boys will need instruction. The possession of operative ability is in many cases a prerequisite for the acquisition of managerial ability.

The teacher's decisions as to teaching objectives should be based upon a consideration of the following factors: (1) The learner's present ability; (2) the learner's capacity; (3) the learner's immediate needs for training; (4) the learner's ultimate vocational objective; (5) teaching facilities; (6) the teacher's ability; (7) seasonal demands; (8) the economic importance of the job; (9) the learning difficulties; (10) the possibilities as to transfer of training; (11) other opportunities for training.

Those jobs should be taught in which the learner most needs training and in which he can not secure training readily from other sources. Whatever jobs are selected should be taught effectively as measured by the attainment of such a stage in his learning as will enable the learner to continue his training himself until he reaches the desired occupational proficiency. The time required for so teaching a given job depends on a number of factors such as the learner's experience, his learning capacity, the nature of the job, and the teaching facilities. In any case the number of jobs to be taught should not be set up arbitrarily and the time apportioned between them without regard to the effectiveness of the teaching.

The order in which the jobs should be taught depends more upon seasonal requirements than upon other factors, such as logical order or learning difficulty. Seasonal requirements may be either specific or relative. With some jobs the material to be used and the opportunity for doing the work are available for only a short period of time. With other jobs the facilities for teaching may be available over a longer period. Operative jobs are particularly subject to seasonal demands. Management jobs may be done at any time before the plans are to be put into execution, provided working data can be secured.

Since many jobs in the different enterprises are similar, the teacher may save much time by making use of the most typical situations in his teaching. Every vocational unit, however, should be based on a specific job in a specific situation. Such a specific job becomes a type job when these other situations are considered. If a pupil has been taught to do such a job, he usually can do other similar jobs with little difficulty. This is a great time saver in teaching. The supervised practice should be adapted to the teaching and not vice versa. It is a means and not an end in itself. Ideally, the pupil should have supervised practice in every job taught. As a practical measure, however, the use of type jobs in supervised practice is justified just as it is in the rest of the teaching.

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