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149. Sec. 18. No judicial officer shall be superseded, nor When officers shall the organization of the several courts of the territory of superseded. Nevada be changed, until the election and qualification of the several officers provided for in this article.

ARTICLE VII.

IMPEACHMENT AND REMOVAL FROM OFFICE.

tried

130. Section 1. The assembly shall have the sole power of Impeachimpeaching. The concurrence of a majority of all the members went, how elected shall be necessary to un impeachnient. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate, and, when sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice according to law and evidence. The Chief Justice of Chief Justice the Supreme Court shall preside over the senate while sitting to preside. to try the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor upon impeachment. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two- Conviction. thirds of the Senators elected.

131. SEC. 2. The Governor, and other state and judicial who liable officers, except Justices of the Peace, shall be liable to impeachment ment for misdemeanor or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such case shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, profit, or trust, under this state. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

152. Sec. 3. For any reasonable cause, to be entered on Justices of the journals of each house, which may or may not be sufficient Supreme grounds for impeachment, the Chief Justice and Associate Jus-District tices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the District Courts be removed. shall be removed from office on the vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the legislature, and the Justice or Judge complained of shall be served with a copy of the complaint against him, and shall have an opportunity of being heard in person, or by counsel, in his defense; provided, that no member of either branch of the legislature shall be eligible to fill the vacancy occasioned by such removal.

O'Neale v. McClinton, 5 Nev. 329. 153. Sec. 4. Provision shall be made by law for the Removal removal from office of any civil officer, other than those in this from collice of

. article previously specified, for malfeasance or nonfeasance in the performance of his duties.

ARTICLE VIII.

MUNICIPAL AND OTHER CORPORATIONS.

may sue,

Bank notes

ipal purposes; but corporations may be formed under general laws; and all such laws may, from time to time, be altered or

repealed. Taxation,

155. SEC. 2. All real property and possessory rights to whut subject the same, as well as personal property in this state, belonging

to corporations now existing or hereafter created, shall be subject to taxation the same as property of individuals; provided, that the property of corporations formed for municipal, charitable, religious, or educational purposes may be exempted by

law, Dues may be 156. Sec. 3. Dues from corporations shall be secured by secured.

such means as may be prescribed by law; provided, that corporators in corporations formed under the laws of this state shall not be individually liable for the debts or liabilities of

such corporations. Corporations 157. Sec. 4. Corporations created by or under the laws of subject to laws, etc. the territory of Nevada shall be subject to the provisions of

such laws until the legislature shall pass laws regulating the

sume, in pursuance of the provisions of this constitution. Corporations 138. Sec. 5. Corporations may sue and be sued in all

courts, in like manner as individuals.

159. Sec. 6. No bank notes or paper of any kind shall prohibited.

ever be permitted to circulate as money in this state, except the federal currency and the notes of banks authorized under the

laws of Congress. Right of 160. Sec. 7. No right of way shall be appropriated to the

use of any corporation until full compensation be first made or

secured therefor. Organization

161. Sec. 8. The legislature shall provide for the organof cities and ization of cities and towns by general laws, and restrict their

powers of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, except for procuring supplies of water.

City of Virginia v. Chollar-Potosi Mg. Co., 2 Nev. 86. 162. Sec. 9. The state shall not donate or loan money or its credit, subscribe to or be interested in the stock of any company, association, or corporation, except corporations formed

for educational or charitable purposes. County, etc., 163. Sec. 10. No county, city, town, or other municipal stockholder. corporation shall become a stockholder in any joint stock com

pany, corporation, or association whatever, or loan its credit in
aid of any such company, corporation, or association, except
railroad corporations, companies, or associations.
Gibson v. Mason, 5 Nev. 284.

ARTICLE IX.

way.

towns.

State not to donate or loan,

not to become

FINANCE AND STATE DEBT.

Fiscal year.

164. Section 1. The fiscal year shall commence on the first day of January in each year.

tax

Restriction of

163. Sec. 2. The legislature shall provide by law for an Legislature

to provide annual tax sufficient to defray the estimated expenses of the

for levying state for each fiscal year; and whenever the expenses of any an annual year shall exceed the income, the legislature shall provide for levying a tax sufficient, with other sources of income, to pay the deficiency, as well as the estimated expenses of such ensuing years [year] or two years.

Klein v. Kinkead, 16 Vev. 194; State v. Carson Savings Bank, 17

Vev. 146. 166. Sec. 3. For the purpose of enabling the state to state may transact its business upon a cash basis, from its organization, debts. the state muy contract public debts; but such debts shall never, in the aggregate, exclusive of interest, exceed the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, except for the purpose of defraying extraordinary expenses as hereinafter mentioned. Every such debt shall be authorized by law for some purpose or purposes, debt. to be distinctly specified therein; and every such law shall provide for levying an annual tax sufficient to pay the interest semi- Annual tax. annually, and the principal within twenty years from the passage of such law, and shall specially appropriate the proceeds of said Proceeds, taxes to the payment of suid principal and interest; and such bowapproappropriation shall not be repealed, nor the taxes be postponed or diminished until the principal and interest of said debts shall have been wholly paid. Every contract of indebtedness entered into or assumed by or on behalf of the state, when all its debts and liabilities amount to said sum before mentioned, shall be void and of no effect, except in cases of money bor-When conrowed to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in time of war, or, if hostilities be threatened, provide for the public defense.

Nightingill v. Com. Storey ('o., 1 Nev. 264. 167. Sec. 4. The state shall never assume the debts of State not to any county, town, or city, or other corporation whatever, unless debtedviese. such debts have been created to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or to provide for the public defense.

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ARTICLE X.

TAXATION.

168. SECTION 1. The legislature shall provide by law for Taxation to a uniform and equal rate of assessment and taxation, and shall be equal. prescribe such regulations as shall secure a just valuation for taxation of all property, real, personal, and possessory, excepting mines and mining claims, the proceeds of which alone shall

ARTICLE XI.

EDUCATION.

Superintendent, when elected.

Term of oflice.

School system to be uniform.

Lands appropriaied for educational purposes.

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169. SECTION 1. The legislature shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, literary, scientific, mining, mechanical, agricultural, and moral improvements; and also provide for the election by the people, at the general election, of a Superintendent of Public Instruction, whose term of office shall be two years from the first Monday of January, A. D. eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and until the election and the qualification of his successor, and whose duties shall be prescribed by law.

170. Sec. 2. The legislature shall provide for a uniform system of common schools, by which a school shall be established and maintained in each school district at least six months in every year; and any school district neglecting to establish and maintain such a school, or which shall allow instructions of a sectarian character therein, may be deprived of its proportion of the interest of the public school fund during such neglect or infraction; and the legislature may pass such laws as will tend to secure a general attendance of the children in each school district upon suid public schools.

171. Sec. 3. All lands, including the sixteenth and thirtysixth sections in every township, donated for the benefit of public schools in the Act of the thirty-eighth Congress, to enable the people of Nevada territory to form a state government; the thirty thousand acres of public lands granted by an Act of Congress, approved July second, A. D. eighteen hundred and sixty-two, for eaoh Senator and Representative in Congress; and all proceeds of lands that have been, or may hereafter be granted or appropriated by the United States to this state, and also the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new states under the Act of Congress distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several states of the Union, approved A. D. eighteen hundred and forty-one; provided, that Congress make provisions for, or authorizes such diversion to be made for the purpose herein contained, all estates that may escheat to the state, all of such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of land, all fines collected under the penal laws of the state, all property given or bequeathed to the state for educational purposes, and all proceeds derived from any or all of said sources shall be, and the same are hereby solemnly pledged for educational purposes, and shall not be transferred to any other fund for other uses; and the interest thereon shall, from time to time, be apportioned among the several counties in proportion to the ascertained numbers of the persons between the ages of

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the interest only of the aforesaid proceeds shall be used for educational purposes, and any surplus interest shall be added to the principal sum; and, provided further, that such proportion Proviso. of said interest as may be necessary may be appropriated for the support of the state university.

Greenbaum v. Rhodes, 4 Mev. 312; Hydenfeldt v. Daney G. & S. M.

Co., 10 Vev. 291; In matter of the estate of Henry Sticknoth, 7
Ver. 223; State ex rel. Rosenstock v. Swift, 11 Nev. 125; Klein
v. Kinkead, 16 Nev. 191.

schools.

172. Sec. 4. The legislature shall provide for the establish- University. ment of a state university, which shall embrace departments for agriculture, mechanic arts, and mining, to be controlled by a Board of Regents, whose duties shall be prescribed by law.

173. Sec. 5. The legislature shall have power to establish Normal normal schools, and such different grades of schools, from the primary department to the university, as in their discretion they may deem necessary, and all professors in said university, or teachers in said schools, of whatever grade, shall be required to take and subscribe to the oath as prescribed in article XV. of this constitution. No professor or teacher who fails to comply with the provisions of any law framed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be entitled to receive any portion of the public moneys set apart for school purposes.

174. Sec. 6. The legislature shall provide for a special tax Special tax. of one-half of one mill on the dollar of all taxable property in the state, in addition to the other means provided for the support and maintenance of said university and common schools; provided, that at the end of ten years they may reduce said tax to one-quarter of one mill on each dollar of taxable property.

173. Sec. 7. The Governor, Secretary of State, and Regenis. Superintendent of Public Instruction shall, for the first four years, and until their successors are elected and qualified, constitute a Board of Regents, to control and manage the affairs of the university and the funds of the same, under such regulations as may be provided by law. But the legislature shall, at its regular session next preceding the expiration of the term of office of said Board of Regents, provide for the election of a new Board of Regents and define their duties.

176. Sec. 8. The Board of Regents shall, from the inter- Duties of est accruing from the first funds which come under their con- Regents. trol, immediately organize and maintain the said mining denartment in such manner

as to make it most effective and

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