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7 A.D. 1898) STUDENTS OF LIFE AND LITERATURE

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and Dr. William Smith, who for many years edited one the Edinburgh, the other the Quarterly Review, were young men twenty-four years old at the beginning of the reign ; and John Thaddeus Delane, who edited The Times after the death of Thomas Barnes, in 1841, and himself died in November, 1879, was twenty.

52. William Edmonstone Aytoun, who was born in 1813, became Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Edin. burgh in 1845, and died in 1865. He produced, in 1848, his Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, which have passed through about twenty editions. His Bon Gaultier Ballads, written by Aytoun and his friend, Theodore Martin, were hardly less popular; and when a young poet, Alexander Smith, who had a touch of genius injured by overstraining for effect, found imitators, Professor Aytoun wrote, in 1854, a whimsical parody on the spasmodic style, called Firmilian, a Spasmodic Tragedy. Aytoun married the youngest daughter of John Wilson (Christopher North), and among his friends was Theodore Martin, whom he joined in the work of translating the Poems and Ballads of Goethe. Aytoun died in 1865.

Theodore Martin-now Sir Theodore-born in 1816, practised law in Edinburgh, and settled to law business in London in 1846. He distinguished himself by the work done with his friend Aytoun, by metrical translation of his own from Horace and Catullus, and from German poets. He has translated Goethe's Faust and Dante's Vita Nuova, and he has written, by Queen Victoria's command, from papers and letters placed at his disposal, the Life of the Prince Consort, which appeared between the years 1874 and 1880. Wide as is the know. ledge of the worth of the laborious and earnest man who used the utmost influence of character and position for the well-being of his adopted country, yet this closer study of his life deepens the prevalent impression. The reign of Victoria has aided life and literature by highest example of a queen who was at all points womanly, and against whom the one complaint of the thoughtless was that she remained devoted to the memory of a husband who was a pattern of true manly worth. It is well that in such a reign womanhood has been worthily represented also in our literature. Life speaks through literature with its true voice in the works of Charlotte Brontë, Mrs. Gaskell, “George Eliot,” and Mrs. Browning. The strength of one true writer overweighs the weakness of a tribe of triflers.

53. Monckton Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton, who died in 1885, was twenty-eight years old at the beginning of the reign. His Poems, in two volumes, were published in 1839 ; Poetry for the People in 1840 ; Palm Leaves in 1844. Other workers who belong to this group of men were John Stuart Blackie, born in 1809, died in 1895, Professor of Greek at Edinburgh, who blended poetic instincts with his scholarship; and Dr. John Brown, of Edinburgh, born in 1810, whose Hora Subseciva, published in 1858-61, contained much good matter, besides the often-reprinted Rab and his Friends, delightful alike to dogs and men, unless dogs cannot read. Martin Farquhar Tupper, author of Proverbial Philosophy, was twenty-seven at the beginning of the reign ; the Rev. William Barnes, author of Poems in the Dorset Dialect, who died in 1886, was twenty-seven ; Alexander William Kinglake, who published, in 1844, a delightful book of Eastern travel, called Eothen, and afterwards a full History of the Crimean War, and died in 1891, was twenty-six. Sir John William Kaye, who published, in 1851, the History of the War in Afghanistan; in 1853, The Administration of the East India Company, and other pieces of Indian history and biography, died in 1876. The Rev. Mark Pattison, born in 1813, who became Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, and author of a scholarly life of Isaac Casaubon, published in 1875, died in 1884, leaving Memoirs of himself that were published in 1885. The Rev. Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol, who was born in 1817 and died in 1893, has enriched the literature of the reign with standard translations of the Dialogus of Plato (1871), the History of Thucydides (1881), and the Politics of Aristotle (1885).

To the same group belonged William Ewart Gladstone, born in 1809. Early in the reign he published in 1838) a work on The State in its Relation to the Church. In 1851-1852 he called strong attention, in two pamphlets, to the arbitrary imprisonment of 20,000 of his subjects by King Ferdinand of Naples for political reasons. In 1858 he published Studies of Homer, and in 1869 Juventus Mundi : the Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. (See also p. 1109).

54. Charles Robert Darwin went farther back for the Juventus Mundi. He was born at Shrewsbury, on the 12th of February, 1809. His father was Dr. R. W. Darwin, F.R.S., son of Erasmus Darwin, poet-physician, and on his mother's side Charles Darwin was a grar.dson of the great artist-potter,

TO A. D. 1893)

CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN

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Josiah Wedgwood. Charles Darwin was educated at Shrewsbury School, and went from school to the University of Edinburgh, in 1825, to study medicine, the family profession. It was not made attractive to him, and, giving up medicine to study for the Church, he left Edinburgh for Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1827, at the age of eighteen. There he came under the influence of John Stevens Henslow, a true naturalist, born at Rochester in 1796, who had become Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge in 1822, and was transferred to the Professorship of Botany in 1825. The touch of Henslow's mind awakened the genius of Charles Darwin, who graduated as B.A. in 1831, proceeded to M.A. in 1837, and, as Professor Henslow's friend and foremost pupil, was recommended by him, in 1838, as naturalist to accompany Captain Fitzroy on the Voyage of the Beagle. In 1839 he published Researches into Natural History and Geology during the Voyage of the Beagle. He had acquired much knowledge on that voyage, and permanent indigestion. In 1842 Charles Darwin married, and settled for life at Down, in Kent. In the same year, his book on The Formation of Coral Reefs was suggestive of grand operations of nature in the work of the small coral builders. His next study was of Volcanic Islands (1844). Then came, in 1845, A Naturalists Voyage round the World. In 1851 his Monograph on Cirripedes was published by the Ray Society. In 1859 Darwin published the book that gave a new point of departure to scientific thought, On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection; or, the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. He had been working at it since the days when he was a naturalist on board the Beagle. Its suggestion that the continuity which former naturalists had observed in the scale of nature was, in the case of animals, produced by gradual development from lower into higher forms, appeared to some people an argument against belief in a Creator ; but it in no way interferes with faith in a First Cause. In 1862 followed a work on the Contri. vances by which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects; in 1865 another, On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. In 1871 Charles Darwin wrote on The Descent of Man, and Selection in relation to Sex; in 1872, On the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals; and his last book, published in 1881, was on Earth Worms. Charles Darwin died, in his seventy-fourth year, on the 19th of April, 1882.

55. Of the writers who were between ten and twenty years old at the beginning of the reign, Florence Nightingale was seventeen. Of her Hints on Hospitals, in 1859, and Notes on Nursing, the result of devoted care of the sick soldiers in the Crimea, more than a hundred thousand copies were diffused. Miss Charlotte Mary Yonge was fourteen. She published, in 1853, The Heir of Redclyffe, and, like Miss Sewell, has been since generously busy in using her pen, as a novelist and otherwise, in aid of religion and religious education. She died in 1901. James Anthony Froude, historian of the Reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, and biographer of Thomas Carlyle, was at the begin. ning of the reign nineteen years old; he died in 1894. Edward Augustus Freeman, who died two years before Froude, was five years his junior. Besides other works, Professor William Stubbs, afterwards Bishop of Oxford, born in 1825, died in 1901, produced, in 1875-78, the best extant Constitutional History of England. The most important of many accurate and thorough books by Professor Freeman is his History of the Norman Conquest of England, in five volumes (1867-79). He published also, in 1881, an Historical Geography of Europe. To the best historical literature of the reign belongs also the series of works in which Samuel Rawson Gardiner has studied the reigns of the two earlier Stuart kings of England, the Commonwealth and the Protectorate, beginning with the accession of James I. In 1901 appeared the third volume of the history of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, which brings the story down to 1656, leaving only four years yet to be dealt with. Henry Thomas Buckle, Matthew Arnold, David Masson, and Henry Morley, were all, at the beginning of the reign, fifteen. Henry Thomas Buckle died in 1862, having produced, in 1858 and 1861, two volumes introductory to a projected History of Civilisation in Europe. Buckle's view of history was the reverse of Carlyle's, for he ascribed no influence to the independent force of character, and pleasantly startled readers by extravagant statement of the half truth, that all events depend on the action of inevitable law. He said also that the moral element was of less consequence than the intellectual in a History of Civilisation, because moral principles are the same as they were a thousand years ago, and all the progress has been intellectual. Steam also is what it was a thousand years ago; and intellect has developed the steam-engine. But where lies the motive power to which every ingenious detail has been

TO A.D. 1901) YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY.

KINGSLEY

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mnade subordinate? Matthew Arnold, son of Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, born in 1822, died April 15th, 1888, took a chief place among English critics, but is now remembered even more by his poetry than by his criticism. He aided the advance of education, and touched questions of religion. The chief work of David Masson, Emeritus Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of Edinburgh, is his Life of Milton, told in connection with the History of his Time, in six volumes, begun in 1859, and finished in 1880. It is a storehouse of information, laboriously sought, carefully weighed. George Macdonald and William Wilkie Collins, two novelists of high mark, and George Macdonald, poet also, with a long list of works to his credit, were both born in 1824. Wilkie Collins died in 1889. Sydney Dobell, who gave much promise as a poet, and died in 1874, was also thirteen. Wilkie Collins's Woman in White, published in 1860, remains, perhaps, the most famous example of that skill in the construction of a peculiar form of plot which excited, at last, the emulation of Charles Dickens. Among men of science, John Tyndall (died 1893) was aged seventeen, and Thomas Henry Huxley (died 1895) twelve, both of them brilliant men of letters as well as able men of science. Edward Hayes Plumptre, divine and poet (died 1891), was nineteen. William Hepworth Dixon, who died in 1879, after an active literary life, was sixteen. Philip James Bailey, who published, in 1839, the remarkable poem of Festus, was twenty-one at the beginning of the reign. John Westland Marston (died 1890), a dramatic poet, who produced several good plays on the stage, was seventeen ; and James Orchard Halliwell-Phillips, one of our ablest and most patient students of Shakespeare, was seventeen. Charles Kingsley and “George Eliot” were eighteen.

56. Charles Kingsley was born in 1819 in the vicarage of Holne, on the border of Dartmoor. After being at school in Clifton and Helston, he was sent to King's College, London, and went thenče, in 1838, to Magdalene College, Cambridge. He graduated with high honours, took a curacy at Eversley, in Hampshire, where in 1844 he became rector. In that year he married. In 1847 he first made his genius known by publishing a dramatic poem, The Saints Tragedy, upon the story of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. In 1848 he was stirred deeply by the

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