Great Ape Societies
William Clement McGrew, William C. McGrew, Linda F. Marchant, Toshisada Nishida
Cambridge University Press, Jul 28, 1996 - Nature - 328 pages
The Great Apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans) are our closest living relatives, sharing a common ancestor only five million years ago. We also share key features such as high intelligence, omnivorous diets, prolonged child-rearing and rich social lives. The Great Apes show a surprising diversity of adaptations, particularly in social life, ranging from the solitary life of orangutans, through patriarchy in gorillas to complex but different social organizations in bonobos and chimpanzees. As Great Apes are so close to humans, comparisons yield essential knowledge for modeling human evolutionary origins. Great Ape Societies provides comprehensive up-to-date syntheses of work on all four species, drawing on decades of international field work, zoo and laboratory studies. It will be essential reading for students and researchers in primatology, anthropology, psychology and human evolution.
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adult females adult males African apes aggression American Journal Animal Behaviour arboreal Boesch bonobos Bossou Cabo San Lucas Cambridge chimpan chimpanzees and bonobos communication copulations diet dominance Ecology estrous females Ethology female bonobos female chimpanzees Fernandez foraging forest frugivorous Furuichi Gabon Gombe Goodall gorilla groups gorillas and chimpanzees gorillas Gorilla gorilla grooming habitat Harcourt hominid Human Evolution individuals interactions International Journal Journal of Primatology Kahuzi-Biega National Park Kalunde Kano Kanyawara Kibale Kuroda Lomako Mahale Mountains male chimpanzees Marler mating Matsuzawa Mitani monkeys mountain gorillas National Park Ndoki Nishida Nsaba Ntologi observed orangutans Pan paniscus panzees party patterns population predation primates pygmy chimpanzees R. W. Wrangham rank relationships sample savanna Schaik sexual social organization Sociobiology species structure Sugiyama sympatric Table Tanzania tool trail Tutin University of Tokyo University Press vegetation vocal Waal Wamba Watts western lowland gorillas wild chimpanzees Yamagiwa Zaire