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whole conduct on this melancholy occasion, seems to ascertain the sincerity of that declaration. In this charitable light, I am apt to consider that unfortunate gentleman, with respect to his past life ; but when I compare his behaviour in this last scene of it, with that of his judges, I am at a loss to determine, which should be deemed greatest, the heroism of the former, or the villainy of the latter.” 1
having discovered fix of the murderers, he ordered them to be first hanged, and afterwards beheaded.” MSS. Irish Jour. written by his chaplain.
He appears to have been apprehended by Lord Charlemont's fucceffor, who applied to the house of commons, in 1662, for a teward for taking him, “ consideration being had of the great lufferings of the Lord Caulfield and his family, and of the great fervice by him performed in apprehending Sir Phelim O'Nial, and bringing him to justice, as alfo regard being had to a reward promised by the lords juftices in the time of his late majesty, to such persons as should bring the head of the said Sir Phelim." (1000l.) Borl. f. 84.
“ Refolved, it should be reported to the house as their opinion, that the said Lord Caulfield; who brought the faid Sir Phelim to justice, shall be considered for that his service, out of the uses intended to be satisfied out of the money intended to be raised by bill.” Com. Jour. vol. ii. f. 22.
Notwithstanding the confessed truth of the above relation of the trial and execution of Sir Phelim O'Nial, a late learned hista rian cenfures Mt. Carte, as rather uncharitable for saying, “ that they would have pardoned and rewarded him, if he had been profligate enough to have falfely accused the late king." And he even asserts on this occasion, that Sir Phelim“ tempted to accuse the king : and that his pardon was not promised on any fuch condition, but that he was to purchase it by producing a material and authentic proof of his guilt.” Lel. Hift. of Irel. vol. ii. p. 395.
Now I cannot comprehend, what, or whofe guilt is here to be understood. Sir Phelim O'Nial had already confefled himself guilty of the insurrection, but still denied that the king had given him a commission for commencing it. It is not to be supposed that they would have pardoned and rewarded him, for producing material and authentic proof of that guilt, which he had already confessed; it therefore remains, that they wanted him to confess, and produce proof of the king's guilt in granting him the commission in question, which he could not do,
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Henry Cromwell's administration in Ireland.
HAD Henry Cromwell, second son to Oliver Cromwell, been placed earlier in the government of Ireland; or when he was so placed, had he been suffered to fol. low the bent of his own humane difpofition, the Irish of that period would have had much fewer and less grievous causes of complaint than were then given them; for to his favourable representation and influence it was entirely owing, that the protector's council did not add new grievances, and oppressions, to those they already suffered. His letters in Thurloe's collection thew bis abilities and skill in governing.' As chancel
* Bate's Elenchus Motuum Nuperor. in Anglia, part ii. p. 57,
because no such commission had been granted. And it is fufficiently evident, from all the circumstances of his trial and execution, that had he been profligate enough to yield to their impor, tunity, by producing any proof, however immaterial and unauthentic, or even by simply avowing that calumny in any public manner, it would have gone very far towards contenting them. Dean Ker, who was present, testifies expressly, “ that on the second day of his trial, fome of the judges told him, that if he could produce any material proof, that he had such a commission from Charles Stewart (for so they called his late majesty,) to declare and prove it, before sentence of death was passed against him, and that the said Sir Phelim should be restored to his estate and liberty." See Nalf. Collect. Cart. Orm.
“ Doctor William Sheridan, formerly bishop of Kildare," says Mr. Carte, “ and the late Mr. Locke, a very worthy man, and member of parliament, were present at the same time ; and have, to many gentlemen now living, confirmed the truth of Dean Ker's relation.” Life of Orm. vol. ij.
a 6 The affefsments which the Irish paid were above a fourth as much as those of all England and Wales ; which, he told his father, in one of his letters, was ten times more than in due proportion they ought to be ; and that they paid incomparably more other charges, owing to the devastations in the civil war, than any other of the three nations." Warn. Irish Rebel. p. 567.
lor of Trinity College, he took that seminary into his particular care and patronage, instituting anew all the literary exercises, together with the long neglected degrees in arts, and the several professorships ; and presented the college with Primate Usher's no. ble library, which he had purchased with his own money: He was easy of access, and affable to all ; often entertaining at his table, even sequestered perfons, and remitting to them one half of those large fums with which they were taxed for their loyalty. Far from being maddened with the enthusiasm of the times, he restored religion to some sort of decency; gave back some churches, which were occupied by the Anabaptists, to the former incumbents; and even had a newborn child of his own publicly baptized in the cathedral of Dublin, a ceremony not seen there of a long time before."
Had he been endowed with fortitude equal to his justice and benevolence, his government would have been signalized by an act, that would have made fome atonement for his father's usurpation, and parricide. He once ? promised to declare for the king; the city of Dublin had undertaken to stand by him, and the Lord of Ards engaged to draw twenty thousand men together in the North, in support of that design; but, upon the receipt of letters from England, the very next day after he had made the promise, his spirits failed him, The king's friends in Dublin justly complained on that occasion, “ that no commissions had been sent them, nor any persons appointed to command them in such an attempt. If these precautions had been used, they could have easily, at that juncture, seized upon the castle."
Of his integrity and disinterestedness, he gave many signal proofs, during his administration ; but none so fignal, or indeed so unprecedented, as that which appeared at the conclusion of it. “For upon his * recall from Ireland, although he had held the government
Sir Ed. Hyde's Lett. to the Marquis of Orm. Cart. Coll. vol. ii. p. 242.
3 Id. ib. 4 Warn, Irish Rebel.
of that kingdom four years, he was not master of money enough, after all, to carry him back to England ; and was, therefore, under the necessity to crave some from thence for that purpose.”
What pity it was, that such a man as this, thould be placed at the head of a nation, without any but merely that of executing designs planned for its destruction in another kingdom! To enforce ordinances, by which those who dared to profess the religion of their consciences, or had not manifested their constant good affections to the usurpation; and also the constant good affections of those ancestors from whom any estates descended to them, and had not already proved the same, and obtained judgment thereof, were adjudged rebels convict, attainted of high treason, and to have forfeited all their honours, estates and preferments. With what regret must such a chief governor have beheld those numerous rapines, and murders, that
s Hughes's Abridgment, p. 33:
In those days, the name of Irishman and rebel was thought to fignify the fame thing. For whenever the Cromwellians met any of the poor country people abroad, or discovered them lurka ing from their fury in dens and caverns, they killed them on the spot, if some unusual or whimsical circumstance did not happen to fave them. Thus Ludlow tells us, “that being on his march, an advanced party found two of the rebels ; one of, whom, fays he, was killed by the guard before I came up; the other was saved, and being brought before me, I asked him, if he had a mind to be hanged ? And he only answered, if you please. So infenfibly stupid, adds he, were many of these poor creatures." Mem. vol. i. * At another time he tells us, he found some poor people retired within a hollow rock; "which,” he says, was lo thick that he thought it impossible to dig it down upon them, and therefore resolved to reduce them by smoak. After some of his men had spent most part of the day in endeavouring to smother those within by fire placed at the mouth of the cave, they withdrew the fire; and the next morning supposing the Irish to be made incapable of resistance by the smoak, some of them crawled into the rock; but one of the Irish, with a pistol, shot the first of his men, by which he found the smoak had not taken the designed effect; because though a great smoak went
were daily committed by his soldiers on that miserable people, not only with impunity, but even by his own constrained order, or connivance. But injustice and cruelty had then the fanction of law; and, in so difmal a conjuncture, it is not, perhaps, less meritorious to employ power to prevent the increase of evil (as he often did his) than it is, in better and more equitable times, to exert its authority and influence for the promotion of actual good.
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into the cavity of the rock, yet it came out again at other crevices ; upon which he ordered those places to be closely stopped, and another smoak to be made ; and the fire was continued till about midnight ; and then taken away, that the place might be cool enough for his men to enter the next morning; at which time they went in armed with back, breast, and head-piece, found the man, who had fired the pistol dead; and put about fifteen to the sword; but brought four or five out alive, with priests robes, a crucifix, chalice, and other furniture of that kind (but no arms.) Those, within," says he,“ preserved themselves by laying their heads close to a water, that ran through the rock. We found two rooms in the place, one of which was large enough to turn a pike.” Such were the enemies whose lives these gallant regicides were incessantly hunting after. A score of despoiled people, lurking in caverns from the fury of their pursuers, and furnished but with one pistol to guard the entrance of their hiding place! From the character of these barbarians, we may well believe (though Ludlow does not mention it) that those four or five wretches, whom they brought alive out of the rock, soon after met with the fate of their companions.
• It is affirmed, that the Dutchess of Ormond, after the restoration, begged the king on her knees, that Henry Cromwell might enjoy the estate given to him in Ireland by his father during his protectorship ; which was granted, because Oliver had given her poffeffion of three thousand pounds a year for her jointure, out of her own estate. Unkind Deserter, p. 139.