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Portugal, who drove Cardinal Palotto out of the kingdom, and imprisoned his auditor.

With the above mentioned charge, Sir Richard Blake, chairman of the assembly,* sent him notice, by their order, that there was a declaration and protestation preparing against him, which were to be sent to his Holiness, to the end that his lordship might prepare for his journey, and for his defence; and that, in the mean time, he should not intermeddle, by himself or any of his instruments, directly or indirectly, with the affairs of the nation, on the penalty which might ensue, by the law of God and nations."

The Nuncio, accordingly," left Ireland on the 23d of February following, to the great joy of the principal nobility and gentry, and the most respectable ecclesiastics of the kingdom. Yer while he was preparing for his departure, the lord lieutenant sent him a private message, by two of his particular friends, the Bishop of Ferns and Nicholas Plunket, Esq; if he would then,' at parting, take off his excommunication, and dispose the people to an absolute obedi. ence to the peace, and the king's authority, he should not only receive all possible civility from him, at his, departure from Ireland, but that he would make a very advantageous mention of him to the


whose distressed condition,” he said, “ would certainly gain some credit to her at Paris, if it was not worse than London.” But the Nuncio did not wait their coming ; for on the night before, he went to sea in his own B 2


66 that

+ Cart. Orm.

s Id. ib. vol. ii. fol. 55.

c • Notwithstanding this message, he remained four whole months afterwards in the kingdom; and then left it of his own accord, and without any further message from the general afsembly, when things seemed to be inclining to some kind of peaceableness between those of his party, and the other confederate catholics.” Vindic. Catholic. in Hib. p. 174.

d“ The court of Rome," says Mr. Carte, “ though it was contrary to their maxims to fix a public mark of censure on the conduct of their ministers, disapproving his conduct, sent him orders to make halte thither." Orm. vol. ii. fol. 56.

frigate, and, on the 2d of March, landed at St. Vaaft, in the Lower Normandy.

At his return to Rome, he was but coldly received by the Pope ; and after having been told, « that he had carried himself rafhly in Ireland," instead of being honoured with a cardinal's hat, as he expected, he was banished to his bishoprick, and principality of Fermo ; which he found in a distracted condition, by just such another insurrection of the people against their viceroy, as he had himself raised and fomented against the king's lieutenant in Ireland. These disappointments of his own, and the distractions of his people, affected him so sensibly, that he soon after died of grief. To what desperate courses General O'Nial was driven, by the assembly's proclaiming him a rebel and a traitor, shall be hereafter related.

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His excellency treats of a peace with the confederate

catholics. The lord lieutenant ' being invited to Kilkenny, by the general assembly, October the 28th, in order to a more expeditious settling of the points in dispute, made his entry into that city in a splendid manner; having been met at some distance from it by the whole body of the assembly, and by all the nobility, clergy, and gentry in the neighbourhood. He was received into the town by the mayor and aldermen, with all those ceremonies and honours, which such corporations used to pay to the supreme authority of the kingdom, and was lodged in his own castle, with all his own guards about him.”

The 6 Walsh's Hist. of the Irish Remonstrance. · Cart. Orm. vol. ii. f.


• The malice and headiness of Owen O’Nial and his party afterwards, was as much, and in truth more, against the confederate Irish, than the king." Borl. Irish Rebel, f. 269.

The next day after his arrival at Kilkenny, his excel. lency entered into a treaty of peace with the general afsembly; and after he had advanced so far in it, as that, “ he thought, he had good grounds to hope it would be speedily concluded, upon the conditions he was empowered to give them, he found it suddenly interrupted by a very dangerous mutiny, raised by some leading officers in Lord Inchiquin's army, who endeavoured, not only to hinder the conclusion of the peace, but also to incline those under them to a treaty and submission to the English parliament.”

On this occasion, it was thought necessary by his excellency and Lord Inchiquin, to suspend the conclu. fion of the peace,“ in such a manner, as might in. duce the mutineers to believe it would be wholly laid aside for their fatisfaction.' On the other hand, the article concerning the free exercise of religion, was not yet adjusted to the satisfaction of the assembly; some of the clergy having much higher expectations, in that respect, than others thought fit to be insisted on.

" This was the only point,* in which there was danger of the treaty's breaking up unfinished, it being very difficult to give content therein to the Roman catholics, without at the same time disgusting the protestants." But an incident happening at this juncture, united the differing parties in that assembly, and greatly accelerated the peace. Some copies of the remonstrance of the independent army in England, which had publicly avowed their design of subverting every thing, that had been hitherto known for government in these nations, were then brought to Kil kenny, and read with universal abhorrence. This s immediately removed all the difficulties which fome of the Roman catholics, in zeal for their religion, had thrown in the way of the peace. The general afsembly receded from their demands in that point. And on the 28th of December, upon consideration of his majesty's present condition, and their own hearty de


2 Carte's Orm, vol. iii.

3 lb,

4 Id. ib. vol. ii. f. 43.

s Id. ib. f. 49.

fires, says Mr. Carte, of spending their lives and fortunes, in maintaining his rights and interests, they resolved unanimously, to accept of the Marquis of Ormond's answer to their propofitions for religion. “ That desperately wicked remonstrance,” says the marquis himself,“ whatever mischief it may do, hath yet done this good, that it put us quite from all disputes upon the necessity of conditions, and was no small cause of the speedy, and I hope, happy conclu

fion of the peace.

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The peace of 1648 concluded and proclaimed. On the 17th of January, 1648', the general assembly repaired to the presence of the lord lieutenant in his castle at Kilkenny, and there, with all folemnity imaginable, presented to him, fitting on a throne of state, the articles of the peace, by the hands of Sir Richard Blake, their chairman, which he received; and having confirmed them, on his majesty's behalf, caused them to be publicly proclaimed. Nine Roman catholic bishops, present in the assembly, joined, the next day,


6 Cart. Orm. vol. ii. f. 602.

* Id. ib. vol. ii. f. 50.

b ". This agreement,” says Borlase, “ paffed with that miraculous consent and unity, that in the whole afsembly, in which there were (nine) catholic bishops, there was not one diffenting voice.” Irish Rebel, f. 260.

· While the marquis of Ormond was treating, at Kilkenny, with the confederates on the peace of 1648, the English parliament having had notice of it from Colonel Jones, ordered their commissioners treating with Charles in the Isle of Wight, to prevail upon

him to disavow it. “ Whereupon his majesty signified, that in case other things were composed by the treaty (with the parliament) the concerns of Ireland should be left wholly to the houses.” And in the interim wrote to Ormond,“ to require him to defist from any further proceedings in that peace.” Borl.

ib. fol. 259

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in a circular letter, which they sent to all the cities and corporations of their party, exhorting them to receive and obey the peace now concluded; which was in substance that which had been made in 1646, but rejected by a former assembly.”

The lord lieutenant, in a letter to Lord Digby, January the 22d, after telling him, that the peace was concluded, adds, " I must say for this people, that I have observed in them, great readiness to comply with what I was able to give them; and a very great sense of the king's fad condition.” And in another letter, of the same date, to the Prince of Wales, he takes notice “ of the very eminent loyalty of the assembly, which was not,” says he, “ shaken by the success, which God hath permitted to the monstrous rebellion in England; nor by the mischievous practices of the no less malicious rebels in Ireland.”

After the signing of the articles, his excellency made a speech to the assembly, wherein he" congratulated them, not only on the score of what they had already obtained by that peace, in point of freedom of worship, abatement of penalties, and other advantages ; but also on the hopes of further indulgence and favour in all these respeềts, according to their future merits." For he told them," “ that, besides the provision made against their remotest fears of the severities of certain


2 Ib. vol. iii. f. 600,

3 Id. ib. f. 601,

4 Ib. vol. iii.

• In that letter they observed to the people, " that although in their thoughts and occasions, during these seven years wars, they had still the same loyalty, which now made them comply with his majesty in his greatest necessity, and had often publicly sworn it, yet they lay under the suspicion of many men; but that by the present agreement, all blemish of that kind was taken away. That, as for their religion, they had received good fatisfaction for the being and safety of it; that by the temporal articles, their lives, liberties, and estates were provided for ; fo as now," added they, “ you have a clear quarrel, without the least colour of suspicion; for you fight purely against sectaries and rebels, for God and Cæsar; and under those banners, you may well hope for victory.” Enquiry into the Share, &c. p. 267.

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