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and among the Roman catholics, it is visible, that the Pope has most of authority and persuasion, and it shall be, without scruple, my advice, and that speedily, that fitting ministers may be sent, and apt inducements proposed, to him for his interpofition with all princes and states."...--Here the sentence is left abruptly broken off, with what view, if done defignedly, may be easily conjectured from the foregoing fragment.

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The Marquis of Clanrickard leaves Ireland, now

entirely subject to the English rebels. THE affairs of the confederate catholics being now absolutely irretrievable, the Marquis of Clanrickard,


a Borlase observing how easily and quickly (in a few months) the usurpers got possession of Ireland, adds, such a winter's campaign, by so inconsiderable a party, against fo considerable a kingdom, was never read or heard of; confidering especially, that to the support of the Irish interests from January, 1649, to January, 1650, there was raised 533,5641. 1os. 11d. besides meal, beeves, wheat, winter-quarters, king's customs, excise, and enemies estates, if we may credit the relation of Mercurius Politicus." Reduct. of Irel. p. 256. Of so little avail are the greatest supplies to the most numerous army, when divisions among its members, and distrust of its principal leader, prevail in it.


in 1652, left Ireland, carrying with him the royal authority.' “ And within a twelvemonth after, Mortogh O'Brien, the last of the Irish commanders, submitted to the parliament, on the usual terms of transportation ;' by the favour of which,” adds my author, “ twenty-seven thousand men had been that year sent away." “ Cromwell,” says a late historian,' '« in order to get free of his enemies, did not scruple to transport forty thousand Irish from their own country, to fill all the armies in Europe with complaints of his cruelty, and admiration of their own valour."

This, together with the multitudes destroyed by the sword, during the war, and by famine and peftilence" after it, caused: a prodigious scarcity of people in the kingdom. But to supply that defect,* Fleetwood, de puty for the parliament, invited over several colonies


2 Ib.

1. Borl. Irish Rebel."
3 Dalrymp. Mem. of Great Brit. vol. i. part 2. p.267.
+ Borl. ubi fupra.


b " The Earl of Clanrickard, finding the Irish: affairs in a desperate condition, with what forces he had left, retired into the town of Carrick, where, being encompassed by our men on all fides, he submitted, and obtained liberty to transport himself with three thousand men, to any foreign country in friendship with the commonwealth, within the space of three months.” Ludlow's Mem. vol. i. p. 418.

Colonel Fitzpatrick was the first (in 1652) who submitted (to the parliament's commissioners in Ireland), on condition to be transported with his regiment, into the service of the king of Spain ; which was a great blow to the Irish confederacy; who were very desirous to treat in conjunction, hoping to obtain more favourable terms, in consideration of their numbers, insomuch that they published declarations against him, and the Irish clergy excommunicated him, and all those who joined him. Notwithstanding which Colonel O'Dwyer, commander in chief of the Irish in the counties of Waterford and Tipperary, followed his example.” Id. ib. p. 403.

6. The Irish that submitted were about three thousand.” Id. ib. p. 411.

o « In the summer of 1650, the plague so exceedingly raged in Dublin, as 'tis reported there died thereof 17000 persons." Borl. Hift. of the Irish Rebel. f. 345.

from England; offering good conditions to such families as would settle in Ireland ; whereupon great numbers of all sorts and sexes, flocked to that kingdom."

“ It cannot be imagined, in how eafy a method, and with what peaceable formality, that whole great kingdom was taken from the just owners and proprietors, and divided among those who had no other right to it, but that they had power to keep it. In less than two years after Lord Clanrickard left Ireland, this new government seemed to be perfectly established ; infomuch that there were many buildings erected for ornament, as well as use; orderly and regular plantations of trees and fences, and enclosures raised throughout the kingdom; purchases made by one from the other, at very valuable rates ; and jointures settled upon marriages ; and all the conveyances and settlements executed, as in a kingdom at peace within itself, and where no doubt could be made of the validity.of-titles.”

On the 26th of September, 1653, the English parliament declared, that the rebels in Ireland were subdued, and the rebellion ended ; and thereupon proceeded to the distribution of their lands, in pursuance of the act of subscriptions 17° Caroli. 66 This being notified to the government of Ireland, Lord Broghill, afterwards Earl of Orrery, proposed at a council of war of all the chief commanders for the parliament, that the whole kingdom should be surveyed, and the number of acres taken, with the quality of them; and then, that all the foldiers should bring in their demands of arrears; and fo give every man, by lot, as many acres ás should answer the value of his demand.” « But a good and great part (says Lord Clarendon), as I remember, of the province of Munster (county of Tipperary); Cromwell had reserved to himself, as a demesne, as he called it, for the state; and in which no adventurer or foldier should demand his lot to be


s Life of Clarend. vol. ii. p. 117-8.
. Morrice's Life of Orrery. Life, vol. ii. p. 117.

assigned ; and no doubt, intended both it and the state for the making great his own family.”

This proposal was agreed to, and all Ireland being surveyed, the best land was rated only at four shillings an acre, and some only at a penny.

The fol. diers drew. lots in what part of the kingdom their portions should be assigned them. Great abuse was committed in setting out the adventurers satisfaction for the money they had advanced, at the beginning of the war; for they had whole baronies set out to them in gross ; and then they employed furveyors of their own, to make their admeasurements.

« No men had so great shares as they who had been instruments to murder the king. What lands they were pleased to call unprofitable (which were thrown in gratis), they returned as such, let them be never fo good and profitable."" The lands held by the soldiers as unprofitable, and as such returned into the surveyor's office, amounted to 605,670 acres. In this manner was the whole kingdom divided between the soldiers, and the adventurers of money.


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Lord Antrim's estate, consisting of 107,611 acres, was allotted to Sir John Clotworthy, afterwards Lord Maffareene, and a few others, in confideration of their adventures and pay, which did not in all exceed the sum of yoool. Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 278.

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